Introduction Small-bowel neuroendocrine tumours (SB-NETs) are rare secreting neoplasms. Hormones (serotonin, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins and chromogranin-A) released into the systemic circulation can lead to a carcinoid syndrome (CS
Myrtille Fouché, Yves Bouffard, Mary-Charlotte Le Goff, Johanne Prothet, François Malavieille, Pierre Sagnard, Françoise Christin, Davy Hayi-Slayman, Arnaud Pasquer, Gilles Poncet, Thomas Walter and Thomas Rimmelé
Richard P Steeds, Vandana Sagar, Shishir Shetty, Tessa Oelofse, Harjot Singh, Raheel Ahmad, Elizabeth Bradley, Rachel Moore, Suzanne Vickrage, Stacey Smith, Ivan Yim, Yasir S Elhassan, Hema Venkataraman, John Ayuk, Stephen Rooney and Tahir Shah
carcinoid syndrome (CS), consisting of facial flushing, diarrhoea and occasionally bronchospasm ( 1 ). Primary NETs within the ovaries are uncommon but can also cause CS and CHD by direct release of bioactive amines into the inferior vena cava or renal vein
Samira M Sadowski, Emanuel Christ, Benoit Bédat, Attila Kollár, Wolfram Karenovics, Aurel Perren, Frédéric Triponez and on behalf of the SwissNET registry
Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs (LNET) represent approximately 30% of all NET ( 1 , 2 ) and account for 1–2% of all lung tumors. Lung NETs are classified into typical carcinoid (TC, low-grade tumors) and atypical carcinoid (AC
Tiina Vesterinen, Teijo Kuopio, Maarit Ahtiainen, Aija Knuuttila, Harri Mustonen, Kaisa Salmenkivi, Johanna Arola and Caj Haglund
Introduction Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) tumors are low- and intermediate-grade neoplasms that are subdivided into typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) based on the mitotic count and presence of necrosis ( 1 ). PCs belong to
Irvin M Modlin, Harry Aslanian, Lisa Bodei, Ignat Drozdov and Mark Kidd
they comprise a heterogeneous group of cancers. Thus, tumor types range from histamine-secreting gastric ‘carcinoids’ to a mélange of pancreatic lesions (secreting glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, or vasoactive polypeptide – colloquially known as islet
Merete Gedde-Dahl, Espen Thiis-Evensen, Andreas Myklebust Tjølsen, Kjerstin Skrede Mordal, Morten Vatn and Deidi S Bergestuen
with endocrine functions (1) . Small intestinal NETs often produce vasoactive substances that may result in the carcinoid syndrome, symptoms of which include flushing, diarrhea, carcinoid heart disease, and bronchospasm. The syndrome is almost
Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland
(2) . Historically, bone metastases from NETs were considered to be extremely rare (3, 4) . As few as 50 case reports were identified in a recently published literature review on skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors (5) . In a series of 145
Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty and Wouter W de Herder
) and clinical parameters (age at diagnosis, sex, primary tumor location, carcinoid syndrome, ENETS TNM classification ( 32 , 33 ), Ki-67 proliferation index, grading, prior incomplete surgery) in NET patients. Subjects and methods NET
Filippo Ceccato, Diego Cecchin, Michele Gregianin, Giacomo Ricci, Cristina Campi, Filippo Crimì, Marta Bergamo, Annibale Versari, Carmelo Lacognata, Federico Rea, Mattia Barbot and Carla Scaroni
Introduction and Aim: Ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) is mostly secondary to thoracic/abdominal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), or small cell-lung carcinoma (SCLC). We studied the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) with 68Ga-Dota derivatives (68Ga-SSTR) positron emission tomography (PET) in localizing ACTH-secreting tumor in patients with EAS.
Materials and Methods: 68Ga-SSTR-PET/CT was performed and compared with the nearest enhanced CT in 18 cases (16 primary and 2 recurrent neoplasms). Unspecific, indeterminate and false positive uptakes were assessed using conventional imaging, follow-up or histology.
Results: We diagnosed 13 thoracic (9 primary and 2 recurrent bronchial carcinoids, 2 SCLCs) and 1 abdominal (pancreatic NET) tumors. 8 ACTH-secreting tumors were promptly identified at EAS diagnosis ('overt', 4 pulmonary carcinoids with 2 recurrences, and 2 SCLC); 6 EAS have been discovered during the subsequent follow-up ('covert', 5 bronchial carcinoids and 1 pancreatic NET). At the time of EAS diagnosis, imaging was able to correctly detect the ACTH-secreting tumour in 8/18 cases (6 new diagnosis and 2 recurrences). During the follow-up, 6 out of initially 10 'occult' cases became 'covert'. At last available follow-up, CT and 68Ga-SSTR-PET/CT were able to diagnose respectively 11/18 and 12/18 ACTH-secreting tumours (respectively 11/14 and 12/14 considering only overt and covert cases). 4 cases have never been localized by conventional or nuclear imaging ('occult' EAS), despite an average follow up of 5 years.
Conclusions: The 68Ga-SSTR-PET/CT is useful in localizing EAS, especially to enhance positive prediction of the suggestive CT lesions and to detect occult neoplasms.
Matilde Calanchini, Michael Tadman, Jesper Krogh, Andrea Fabbri, Ashley Grossman and Brian Shine
until they are large or have metastasised. However, up to 40% of patients, mainly with midgut carcinoids, present with features of the carcinoid syndrome (CS) ( 6 ), and undergo episodes of diarrhoea and flushing and occasionally asthma. Carcinoid heart