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Gareth Leng

-specific expression of their receptors. By contrast, neuroscience is the study of the brain, and particularly of neurones that release neurotransmitters at synapses with effects tightly localised in space and time, constrained by mechanisms of rapid reuptake and

Open access

Kylie D Rock, Brian Horman, Allison L Phillips, Susan L McRitchie, Scott Watson, Jocelin Deese-Spruill, Dereje Jima, Susan Sumner, Heather M Stapleton and Heather B Patisaul

similarities with known neurotoxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including PBDEs ( 9 ) and organophosphate pesticides ( 10 ), have raised concerns regarding possible health impacts, especially on the developing brain. Because we have found

Open access

Anne M Drewes, Maria E Møller, Rasmus Hertzum-Larsen, Gerda Engholm and Hans H Storm

. Apart from ionising radiation, we have limited knowledge on risk factors for brain tumours, and for breast cancer hormone-related factors, for example, null parity, late age pregnancies, overweight, alcohol consumption and genetic mutations ( BRCA1 and

Open access

Bilal B Mughal, Jean-Baptiste Fini and Barbara A Demeneix

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development where it influences, during specific temporal windows, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, neuronal and glial cell differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis. These

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Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro and Susana Silberstein

are essential to the stress response driving both basal and stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) activation. Besides the hypothalamus, CRH is widely distributed in extrahypothalamic circuits of the brain where it functions as a

Open access

Patricia Iozzo and Maria Angela Guzzardi

least in part, during the earliest phases of life, as the brain undergoes its major development, involving a five-fold volumetric spurt in the first 5 years of life ( 6 ). Several early-life factors may affect the propensity of infants to become obese

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B C M Hermans, J L Derks, H J M Groen, J A Stigt, R J van Suylen, L M Hillen, E C van den Broek, E J M Speel and A-M C Dingemans

have a Ki-67 PI >40%. The group with Ki-67 PI >20% and ≤40% might be considered an intermediate NEN group, including high-grade NET and/or low-grade LCNEC, not specified in current WHO criteria. The majority of LCNEC patients with solitary brain

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H A Booij, W D C Gaykema, K A J Kuijpers, M J M Pouwels and H M den Hertog

articles on PD after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the association with fatigue, since the mechanism of PD in these other acute acquired brain injuries might be similar as in stroke. A better understanding

Open access

Rachel K Rowe, Benjamin M Rumney, Hazel G May, Paska Permana, P David Adelson, S Mitchell Harman, Jonathan Lifshitz and Theresa C Thomas

Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability throughout the world with few pharmacological treatments for the individuals who suffer from lifelong neurological symptoms associated with TBI. Brain injuries

Open access

Frans H H Leenen, Mordecai P Blaustein and John M Hamlyn

reflexes send afferent information to the brain and control sympathetic nerve traffic to arteries and veins, heart and kidneys. According to the Guytonian view of the circulation, these reflexes reset and the CNS and sympathetic activity have only limited