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Sylvia Thiele, Anke Hannemann, Maria Winzer, Ulrike Baschant, Heike Weidner, Matthias Nauck, Rajesh V Thakker, Martin Bornhäuser, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

controls ( Tables 1 and 2 ). This was accompanied by decreased bone formation, indicated by decreased levels of osteocalcin, as well as a decrease in the bone resorption marker CTX in both cohorts, indicating reduced bone remodeling in GC-treated patients

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Martine Cohen-Solal, Thomas Funck-Brentano and Pablo Ureña Torres

(ROD) which was previously based on bone biopsies. Indeed, several features of bone strength which are also linked to mineral metabolism are currently included, such as bone structure, mineralization and level of bone remodeling that contribute to the

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Petar Milovanovic and Björn Busse

these areas particularly vulnerable to mechanical loading. – A lack of viable osteocytes hampers bone mechanosensitivity and delays or reduces the repair of microdamage: Osteocytes are crucial regulators of bone remodeling. In particular, osteocytes

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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

osteoclasts needs to be balanced. In T2DM, osteoblast function is disturbed and osteoclast activity is altered leading to impaired bone remodeling. However, the literature on osteoclasts is controversial. Serum levels of the bone resorption marker collagen

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Kaisa K Ivaska, Maikki K Heliövaara, Pertti Ebeling, Marco Bucci, Ville Huovinen, H Kalervo Väänänen, Pirjo Nuutila and Heikki A Koistinen

employed the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (29) to study whether insulin affects markers of bone remodeling, particularly OC, in humans. A few studies have applied this technique to assess acute insulin-driven changes in bone metabolism (30

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Malachi J McKenna and Barbara F Murray

-year calcium and vitamin D3 treatments on bone remodeling markers and femoral bone density in elderly women . Current Therapeutic Research 1998 59 850 – 862 . ( doi:10.1016/S0011-393X(98)85050-9 ). 27 Goussous R Song L Dallal GE Dawson

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Agnieszka Pazderska, Yaasir Mamoojee, Satish Artham, Margaret Miller, Stephen G Ball, Tim Cheetham and Richard Quinton

course, revisit this strategy in the event of intercurrent spinal fracture for which parenteral antiresorptives may also be beneficial for pain control and bone remodelling, but have not yet faced this scenario in this group of patients. Despite

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Ulla Schmidt, Birte Nygaard, Ebbe Winther Jensen, Jan Kvetny, Anne Jarløv and Jens Faber

). 20 Akalin A Colak O Alatas O Efe B . Bone remodelling markers and serum cytokines in patients with hyperthyroidism . Clinical Endocrinology 2002 57 125 – 129 . ( doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2002.01578.x ). 21 Faber J Galløe AM

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Elena Valassi, Natalia García-Giralt, Jorge Malouf, Iris Crespo, Jaume Llauger, Adolfo Díez-Pérez and Susan M Webb

excess on bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis ( 1 ). ACRO patients show increased bone turnover and deterioration of both biomechanical competence and microarchitecture at the trabecular compartment ( 3 , 6 , 7 ). Of note, the latter has been

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Stephen A Martin, Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Dawn A Olson, Adam J Branscum, Donald B Jump, Charles K Marik, Jonathan M DenHerder, Jennifer L Sargent, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

in controlling bone metabolism . Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 2005 931 – 940 . ( https://doi.org/10.1517/14728222.9.5.931 ) 13 Hill EL Turner R Elde R . Effects of neonatal sympathectomy and capsaicin treatment on bone