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Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty and Wouter W de Herder

patients were reported to be positively correlated with tumor burden ( 29 ), total plasma ghrelin seems not to be a useful biomarker since total plasma ghrelin levels did not discriminate between patients with NETs and healthy controls ( 23 ). Currently

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Kjell Oberg, Eric Krenning, Anders Sundin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd, Margot Tesselaar, Valentina Ambrosini, Richard P Baum, Matthew Kulke, Marianne Pavel, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Ignat Drozdov, Massimo Falconi, Nicola Fazio, Andrea Frilling, Robert Jensen, Klaus Koopmans, Tiny Korse, Dik Kwekkeboom, Helmut Maecke, Giovanni Paganelli, Ramon Salazar, Stefano Severi, Jonathan Strosberg, Vikas Prasad, Aldo Scarpa, Ashley Grossman, Annemeik Walenkamp, Mauro Cives, Irene Virgolini, Andreas Kjaer and Irvin M Modlin

assessment by imaging, biomarker levels and overall survival represents the fundamental basis for all management strategies. The need to monitor tumor responsiveness, both in clinical trials and in routine practice, is mandatory given the range of expensive

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Ali Abbasi

Introduction Over the past decade, interest in studying biological markers (biomarkers) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased intensely. This happened because multiple pathobiological processes may contribute to the disease progression, which

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Huguette S Brink, Aart Jan van der Lely and Joke van der Linden

). In recent years, adipokines have been posed as the link between adiposity and adverse complications such as insulin resistance. Identification of early biomarkers in pregnant women, who subsequently develop GD, may result in improved understanding of

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Vito Francic, Martin Keppel, Verena Schwetz, Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Valentin Borzan, Martin R Grübler, Nicolas D Verheyen, Marcus E Kleber, Graciela Delgado, Angela P Moissl, Benjamin Dieplinger, Winfried März, Andreas Tomaschitz, Stefan Pilz and Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch

as their biomarker surrogates but also the seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Soluble ST2 (sST2) is the truncated, soluble form of the ST2 receptor found in the circulation and functions as a decoy receptor, binding IL-33

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Anna Malczewska, Magdalena Witkowska, Karolina Makulik, Agnes Bocian, Agata Walter, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Wojciech Zajęcki, Lisa Bodei, Kjell Oberg and Beata Kos-Kudła

PNETs without liver involvement, carcinoid syndrome occurs very rarely ( 2 ). Circulating indicators of tumor secretory functionality (amines or peptides) hence represent a minority of NETs. Measurement of secretory biomarkers is therefore de facto

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Fabian Eichelmann, Cornelia Weikert, Romina di Giuseppe, Ronald Biemann, Berend Isermann, Matthias B Schulze, Heiner Boeing and Krasimira Aleksandrova

reported associations between chemerin and biomarkers of inflammation, metabolic parameters and anthropometric measures of adiposity ( 13 ). However, little is known about the interrelations of chemerin with inflammation-related adipokines. Particularly

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Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Peter E Clayton, Catherine S Choong, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John J Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irene Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Solberg, Christian Strasburger, Peter Trainer, Kevin C J Yuen, Kerstin Wickstrom, Jens O L Jorgensen and on behalf of the Growth Hormone Research Society

Introduction Biological markers (biomarkers) play an essential role in the clinical care of patients, drug development and regulatory approval. Furthermore, biomarkers are linked to surrogate endpoints and clinical endpoints ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

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Hathairat Rueangdetnarong, Rattanaporn Sekararithi, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sirinart Kumfu, Nipon Chattipakorn, Theera Tongsong and Phudit Jatavan

2 . During early labor, the levels of 8Isop were still significantly higher in the GDM group, whereas the levels of TNFα tended to be increased but did not reach the significant level ( Table 2 ). All the three biomarkers in cord blood were not

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Irvin M Modlin, Harry Aslanian, Lisa Bodei, Ignat Drozdov and Mark Kidd

biomarkers (1) . An accurate tumor marker is a critical tool in tumor management, because it establishes an uncertain diagnosis, offers a basis for individual prognostication, signals response to therapy, and identifies relapse. In classical terms, a high