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Open access

Stine Linding Andersen and Stig Andersen

autoimmunity. Thus, the determination of causal factors for outcome of a pregnancy and offspring development in women suffering from the hyperthyroidism of GD is complex and hitherto not clarified in detail. In this review, we explore outcomes of

Open access

Kusum Lata, Pinaki Dutta, Subbiah Sridhar, Minakshi Rohilla, Anand Srinivasan, G R V Prashad, Viral N Shah, and Anil Bhansali

effect on granulosa cells, luteal cells and oocyte maturation (8) . Euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity are twice as likely to experience spontaneous miscarriages (9) . This probably represents a generalised activation of the immune system, or an

Open access

Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias

mucosa and luminal ecosystems involvement in the thyroid autoimmunity: (i) Gut dysbiosis might disturb the finely tuned immune balance and break tolerance to self-antigens and non-pathogenic non-self-antigens, by posttranslational modification proteins

Open access

Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos, and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

pancreas. A small percentage of affected patients (<10%) are classified as type 1B, with no evidence of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis in these cases is considered idiopathic ( 1 , 2 ). The aim of this comprehensive review is to present updated

Open access

Yun Cai, Jieni Yan, Yong Gu, Heng Chen, Yang Chen, Xinyu Xu, Mei Zhang, Liping Yu, Xuqin Zheng, and Tao Yang

controls (HC), indicating the distinct value of studying islet immune status in AITD. Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) is the recently identified new marker of autoimmunity in diabetes ( 24 ). Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that

Open access

Nancy J Olsen, Ann L Benko, and William J Kovacs

modulate autoimmunity. An association of Klinefelter's syndrome with lupus has been reported in several studies, and in isolated case reports, reversal of hypogonadism in such patients with Klinefelter's syndrome by testosterone replacement has been

Open access

Marek Niedziela

ablative dose followed by their unpredictable timing of decline might incur risk of TED exacerbation in GD patients. The majority of patients with GD gradually enter remission of TSH-receptor autoimmunity during medical treatment or after surgical therapy

Open access

Borros Arneth

Background

The origin of autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes is still unknown.

Aim

This study assessed the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by human insulin and human glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy volunteers.

Materials and methods

The expression of CD69, a marker of T-lymphocyte activity, was determined in whole blood samples by flow cytometry after 12 h of incubation with or without insulin or GAD. The analysis included samples from 12 type 1 DM patients, 14 type 2 DM patients and 12 healthy volunteers.

Results

Significant increases in the number of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes following pre-incubation of whole blood samples with human insulin or GAD were observed in samples from patients with type 1 DM, whereas no activation of these cells was detected in samples from either type 2 DM patients or healthy subjects.

Discussion

These results indicated that latent pre-activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in response to insulin or GAD epitopes occurred in type 1 DM patients.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that pre-immunization against insulin and/or GAD might be associated with the development of type 1 DM. Alternatively, these results might reflect a non-specific, bystander autoimmune response.

Open access

Xiangyu Gao, Wanwan Sun, Yi Wang, Yawen Zhang, Rumei Li, Jinya Huang, and Yehong Yang

). Historically, based on positivity of islet autoantibodies, diabetes mellitus had been classified into two clinical types: type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( 3 , 4 ). The progressive destruction of islet β cell mass caused by islet autoimmunity

Open access

Qinglei Yin, Zhou Jin, Yulin Zhou, Dalong Song, Chenyang Fu, FengJiao Huang, and Shu Wang

of autoimmunity- and inflammation-related processes, including nuclear factor-κB and toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine expression, and immune cell proliferation and differentiation ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). It has also been demonstrated