autoimmunity. Thus, the determination of causal factors for outcome of a pregnancy and offspring development in women suffering from the hyperthyroidism of GD is complex and hitherto not clarified in detail. In this review, we explore outcomes of
Stine Linding Andersen and Stig Andersen
Kusum Lata, Pinaki Dutta, Subbiah Sridhar, Minakshi Rohilla, Anand Srinivasan, G R V Prashad, Viral N Shah, and Anil Bhansali
effect on granulosa cells, luteal cells and oocyte maturation (8) . Euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity are twice as likely to experience spontaneous miscarriages (9) . This probably represents a generalised activation of the immune system, or an
Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias
mucosa and luminal ecosystems involvement in the thyroid autoimmunity: (i) Gut dysbiosis might disturb the finely tuned immune balance and break tolerance to self-antigens and non-pathogenic non-self-antigens, by posttranslational modification proteins
Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos, and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
pancreas. A small percentage of affected patients (<10%) are classified as type 1B, with no evidence of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis in these cases is considered idiopathic ( 1 , 2 ). The aim of this comprehensive review is to present updated
Yun Cai, Jieni Yan, Yong Gu, Heng Chen, Yang Chen, Xinyu Xu, Mei Zhang, Liping Yu, Xuqin Zheng, and Tao Yang
controls (HC), indicating the distinct value of studying islet immune status in AITD. Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) is the recently identified new marker of autoimmunity in diabetes ( 24 ). Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that
Nancy J Olsen, Ann L Benko, and William J Kovacs
modulate autoimmunity. An association of Klinefelter's syndrome with lupus has been reported in several studies, and in isolated case reports, reversal of hypogonadism in such patients with Klinefelter's syndrome by testosterone replacement has been
ablative dose followed by their unpredictable timing of decline might incur risk of TED exacerbation in GD patients. The majority of patients with GD gradually enter remission of TSH-receptor autoimmunity during medical treatment or after surgical therapy
The origin of autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes is still unknown.
This study assessed the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by human insulin and human glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy volunteers.
Materials and methods
The expression of CD69, a marker of T-lymphocyte activity, was determined in whole blood samples by flow cytometry after 12 h of incubation with or without insulin or GAD. The analysis included samples from 12 type 1 DM patients, 14 type 2 DM patients and 12 healthy volunteers.
Significant increases in the number of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes following pre-incubation of whole blood samples with human insulin or GAD were observed in samples from patients with type 1 DM, whereas no activation of these cells was detected in samples from either type 2 DM patients or healthy subjects.
These results indicated that latent pre-activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in response to insulin or GAD epitopes occurred in type 1 DM patients.
These findings suggest that pre-immunization against insulin and/or GAD might be associated with the development of type 1 DM. Alternatively, these results might reflect a non-specific, bystander autoimmune response.
Xiangyu Gao, Wanwan Sun, Yi Wang, Yawen Zhang, Rumei Li, Jinya Huang, and Yehong Yang
). Historically, based on positivity of islet autoantibodies, diabetes mellitus had been classified into two clinical types: type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( 3 , 4 ). The progressive destruction of islet β cell mass caused by islet autoimmunity
Qinglei Yin, Zhou Jin, Yulin Zhou, Dalong Song, Chenyang Fu, FengJiao Huang, and Shu Wang
of autoimmunity- and inflammation-related processes, including nuclear factor-κB and toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine expression, and immune cell proliferation and differentiation ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). It has also been demonstrated