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Devis Pascut, Sofia Tamini, Silvia Bresolin, Pablo Giraudi, Giuseppe Basso, Alessandro Minocci, Claudio Tiribelli, Graziano Grugni, and Alessandro Sartorio

for age, sex and BMI, was extracted and independently profiled on the Affymetrix miRNA arrays containing 2578 Human mature miRNA probe sets. RNA was labelled with the FlashTag Biotin HSR RNA Labeling Kit (Affymetrix, Thermo Fischer Scientific) and

Open access

Zofia Kolesinska, James Acierno Jr, S Faisal Ahmed, Cheng Xu, Karina Kapczuk, Anna Skorczyk-Werner, Hanna Mikos, Aleksandra Rojek, Andreas Massouras, Maciej R Krawczynski, Nelly Pitteloud, and Marek Niedziela

possible mode of inheritance. This study aimed to compare the relationship between the clinical diagnosis (based on physical examination, biochemical and radiological assessment) to the result of genetic assessment using array-comparative genomic

Open access

Nancy J Olsen, Ann L Benko, and William J Kovacs

against the components of an 84-component autoantigen array described previously (23, 33) . Arrays were prepared and run in the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Microarray Core Facility. Data were normalized for total IgG or IgM levels in

Open access

Anne Jouinot, Juliane Lippert, Martin Fassnacht, Bruno de La Villeon, Amandine Septier, Mario Neou, Karine Perlemoine, Silke Appenzeller, Mathilde Sibony, Sébastien Gaujoux, Bertrand Dousset, Rossella Libe, Lionel Groussin, Cristina L Ronchi, Guillaume Assié, and Jérôme Bertherat

were called by analyzing SNP array data in the Cochin cohort ( n  = 14). Homozygous deletions and amplifications were called if log R ratio (LRR) was lower or higher than three-fold the s.d. , respectively ( 11 ). Calculation of recurrence rate was

Open access

André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

offspring but also in subsequent generations. A vast array of reproductive abnormalities has been reported in the offspring of women treated with DES during the mid-20th century, for miscarriage prevention (19, 83) . Recently, a French epidemiologic study

Open access

Pernille Bækgaard Udesen, Dorte Glintborg, Anja Elaine Sørensen, Rikke Svendsen, Nanna Louise Skov Nielsen, Marie Louise Muff Wissing, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Anne Lis Mikkelsen Englund, and Louise Torp Dalgaard

Scientific) according to the manufacturers’ protocol. miRNAs were subsequently analyzed using Human TaqMan low density array (TLDA) cards containing 24 different assays (ThermoFisher Scientific) according to manufacturers’ protocols. The TLDA card was

Open access

P G Murray, D Hanson, T Coulson, A Stevens, A Whatmore, R L Poole, D J Mackay, G C M Black, and P E Clayton

are most likely to be upregulated and values closer to −1 indicate those most likely to be downregulated. In addition to PCA, quality control of the arrays was assessed with dCHIP ( http://biosun1.harvard.edu/complab/dchip/ ). Gene ontology and pathway

Open access

Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumption of drug intake. The possible interactions between brain corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products and the systemic HPA, and additionally with the local CRH–POMC system in the adrenal gland itself, are complex. Nevertheless, the evidence increasingly suggests that all may be interlinked and that CRH in the brain and brain POMC products interact with the blood-borne HPA directly or indirectly. Corticosteroids themselves are known to affect mood profoundly and may themselves be addictive. Additionally, there is a heightened susceptibility for addicted subjects to relapse in conditions that are associated with change in HPA activity, such as in stress, or at different times of the day. Recent studies give compelling evidence that a significant part of the array of addictive symptoms is directly attributable to the secretory activity of the adrenal cortex and the actions of corticosteroids. Additionally, sex differences in addiction may also be attributable to adrenocortical function: in humans, males may be protected through higher secretion of DHEA (and DHEAS), and in rats, females may be more susceptible because of higher corticosterone secretion.

Open access

M L M Barreto-Chaves, N Senger, M R Fevereiro, A C Parletta, and A P C Takano

The cardiac growth process (hypertrophy) is a crucial phenomenon conserved across a wide array of species and is critically involved in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. This process enables an organism to adapt to changes in systemic demand and occurs due to a plethora of responses, depending on the type of signal or stimuli received. The growth of cardiac muscle cells in response to environmental conditions depends on the type, strength and duration of stimuli, and results in adaptive physiological responses or non-adaptive pathological responses. Thyroid hormones (TH) have a direct effect on the heart and induce a cardiac hypertrophy phenotype, which may evolve to heart failure. In this review, we summarize the literature on TH function in the heart by presenting results from experimental studies. We discuss the mechanistic aspects of TH associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, increased cardiac myocyte contractility and electrical remodeling, as well as the associated signaling pathways. In addition to classical crosstalk with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), emerging work pointing to the new endocrine interaction between TH and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is also explored. Given the inflammatory potential of the angiotensin II peptide, this new interaction may open the door for new therapeutic approaches which target the key mechanisms responsible for TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Open access

Darling M Rojas-Canales, Michaela Waibel, Aurelien Forget, Daniella Penko, Jodie Nitschke, Fran J Harding, Bahman Delalat, Anton Blencowe, Thomas Loudovaris, Shane T Grey, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W H Kay, Chris J Drogemuller, Nicolas H Voelcker, and Patrick T Coates

) microwell array to reduce islet interactions. PDMS is an oxygen-permeable silicon rubber, allowing the high oxygen requirements of human islets to be supported ( 26 ). We show that the microwell device protected islets from aggregation during transport