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Devis Pascut, Sofia Tamini, Silvia Bresolin, Pablo Giraudi, Giuseppe Basso, Alessandro Minocci, Claudio Tiribelli, Graziano Grugni and Alessandro Sartorio

for age, sex and BMI, was extracted and independently profiled on the Affymetrix miRNA arrays containing 2578 Human mature miRNA probe sets. RNA was labelled with the FlashTag Biotin HSR RNA Labeling Kit (Affymetrix, Thermo Fischer Scientific) and

Open access

Zofia Kolesinska, James Acierno Jr, S Faisal Ahmed, Cheng Xu, Karina Kapczuk, Anna Skorczyk-Werner, Hanna Mikos, Aleksandra Rojek, Andreas Massouras, Maciej R Krawczynski, Nelly Pitteloud and Marek Niedziela

possible mode of inheritance. This study aimed to compare the relationship between the clinical diagnosis (based on physical examination, biochemical and radiological assessment) to the result of genetic assessment using array-comparative genomic

Open access

Nancy J Olsen, Ann L Benko and William J Kovacs

against the components of an 84-component autoantigen array described previously (23, 33) . Arrays were prepared and run in the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Microarray Core Facility. Data were normalized for total IgG or IgM levels in

Open access

André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

offspring but also in subsequent generations. A vast array of reproductive abnormalities has been reported in the offspring of women treated with DES during the mid-20th century, for miscarriage prevention (19, 83) . Recently, a French epidemiologic study

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P G Murray, D Hanson, T Coulson, A Stevens, A Whatmore, R L Poole, D J Mackay, G C M Black and P E Clayton

are most likely to be upregulated and values closer to −1 indicate those most likely to be downregulated. In addition to PCA, quality control of the arrays was assessed with dCHIP ( http://biosun1.harvard.edu/complab/dchip/ ). Gene ontology and pathway

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Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumption of drug intake. The possible interactions between brain corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) products and the systemic HPA, and additionally with the local CRH–POMC system in the adrenal gland itself, are complex. Nevertheless, the evidence increasingly suggests that all may be interlinked and that CRH in the brain and brain POMC products interact with the blood-borne HPA directly or indirectly. Corticosteroids themselves are known to affect mood profoundly and may themselves be addictive. Additionally, there is a heightened susceptibility for addicted subjects to relapse in conditions that are associated with change in HPA activity, such as in stress, or at different times of the day. Recent studies give compelling evidence that a significant part of the array of addictive symptoms is directly attributable to the secretory activity of the adrenal cortex and the actions of corticosteroids. Additionally, sex differences in addiction may also be attributable to adrenocortical function: in humans, males may be protected through higher secretion of DHEA (and DHEAS), and in rats, females may be more susceptible because of higher corticosterone secretion.

Open access

Darling M Rojas-Canales, Michaela Waibel, Aurelien Forget, Daniella Penko, Jodie Nitschke, Fran J Harding, Bahman Delalat, Anton Blencowe, Thomas Loudovaris, Shane T Grey, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W H Kay, Chris J Drogemuller, Nicolas H Voelcker and Patrick T Coates

) microwell array to reduce islet interactions. PDMS is an oxygen-permeable silicon rubber, allowing the high oxygen requirements of human islets to be supported ( 26 ). We show that the microwell device protected islets from aggregation during transport

Open access

K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar and J G van den Berg

tumours ( P  = 0.013 and P  = 0.004, respectively) – – Kim et al. 2007 29 Well-differentiated ileal NETs ( n  = 15) Genome-wide high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis Loss of Chr 18 in 67%, loss of Chr 21 or 21q in

Open access

Melissa Braga, Zena Simmons, Keith C Norris, Monica G Ferrini and Jorge N Artaza

/PAX7/DAPI merge. Fields were photographed with a Leica DFC310 FX digital camera and Leica acquisition software. Negative controls were done by either omitting the first antibody or using a rabbit non-specific IgG ( 25 ). PCR array analysis of

Open access

Luigia Cinque, Angelo Sparaneo, Antonio S Salcuni, Danilo de Martino, Claudia Battista, Francesco Logoluso, Orazio Palumbo, Roberto Cocchi, Evaristo Maiello, Paolo Graziano, Geoffrey N Hendy, David E C Cole, Alfredo Scillitani and Vito Guarnieri

directly sequenced ( 12 , 17 ). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the MEN1 locus (chr 11q13.1) was searched for as described previously ( 17 ). Lipoma tumoral tissue was not available. SNP array A search for CDC73 and MEN1 gene deletions was