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V Guarnotta, C Di Stefano, A Santoro, A Ciresi, A Coppola, and C Giordano

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, likely due to inappropriate glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and no physiological daily exposure. Indeed, conventional GC treatment, with hydrocortisone (HC

Open access

Salem A Beshyah, Khawla F Ali, and Hussein F Saadi

attracted the most attention with the largest volume of literature ( 5 ). Nevertheless, significant deficiencies remain in guidance toward the management of other endocrinological disorders during Ramadan ( 6 ). Adrenal insufficiency (AI) represents a

Open access

Marloes L P Langelaan, Jérôme M H Kisters, Mirjam M Oosterwerff, and Arjen-Kars Boer

binding proteins, such as CBG and albumin. An emerging role for salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) has, however, still to be defined. We investigated whether early morning salivary cortisol can be used to prevent ACTH

Open access

Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer, and Marcus Quinkler

GR functionality. In patients with bronchial asthma, the Bcl I polymorphism seems to at least partially explain the development of a severe form of asthma associated with resistance to glucocorticoids ( 10 ). Patients with adrenal insufficiency

Open access

Thabiso R P Mofokeng, Salem A Beshyah, Fazleh Mahomed, Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, and Ian L Ross

Introduction Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare, potentially fatal, but treatable disease ( 1 , 2 ). The estimated prevalence of PAI in South Africa is three per million ( 3 ), in contrast to Western countries in which prevalence

Open access

Kamran Iqbal, Kate Halsby, Robert D Murray, Paul V Carroll, and Robert Petermann

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a chronic, rare, potentially fatal condition. Primary AI (also known as Addison’s disease or hypoadrenalism) is caused by the loss of function of the adrenal cortex, whereas secondary AI results from

Open access

Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Giorgia Antonelli, Mattia Barbot, Andrea Daniele, Marco Boscaro, Mario Plebani, and Carla Scaroni

Introduction The correct diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a matter of debate ( 1 ), partly because an adequate glucocorticoid (GC) replacement therapy is life-saving, but inappropriate treatment is detrimental ( 2 , 3

Open access

Ida Staby, Jesper Krogh, Marianne Klose, Jonas Baekdal, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Lars Poulsgaard, Jacob Bertram Springborg, and Mikkel Andreassen

hypopituitarism both before and after surgery. Evaluation of hypopituitarism includes clinical examination and assessment of pituitary hormone axes. Most crucial is the evaluation of adrenal function to secure proper treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI) and to

Open access

Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Claudio Marelli, Sharif Uddin, Pierre Zelissen, Robert D Murray, and on behalf of the EU-AIR Investigators

cortisone, resulting in higher systemic availability of the active 11β-hydroxy form, prednisolone ( 12 ). Prednisolone is used in some patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) as hormone replacement therapy. Advocates of prednisolone highlight that it

Open access

Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira, and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

Introduction Addison disease (AD) or primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening disease that results from bilateral destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex ( 1 ). PAI is a rare disease with a reported prevalence of