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Nilesh Lomte, Tushar Bandgar, Shruti Khare, Swati Jadhav, Anurag Lila, Manjunath Goroshi, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Kranti Khadilkar, and Nalini S Shah

Introduction With increasing use of high-resolution imaging, incidentally found adrenal masses, mostly unilateral, are a common clinical problem. The vast majority of these unilateral masses are benign non-functioning adrenal adenomas ( 1

Open access

Kristin Viste, Marianne A Grytaas, Melissa D Jørstad, Dag E Jøssang, Eivind N Høyden, Solveig S Fotland, Dag K Jensen, Kristian Løvås, Hrafnkell Thordarson, Bjørg Almås, and Gunnar Mellgren

adrenalectomy (9) . If the adrenal hypersecretion of aldosterone is bilateral, or a patient is unwilling to undergo surgery, medical treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist is recommended (10) . Selective adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the

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Tatiana V Novoselova, Peter J King, Leonardo Guasti, Louise A Metherell, Adrian J L Clark, and Li F Chan

Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dictates the production of glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal gland. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

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Stavroula A Paschou, Eleni Palioura, Dimitrios Ioannidis, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Argyro Panagiotakou, Vasiliki Loi, Georgios Karageorgos, Dimitrios G Goulis, and Andromachi Vryonidou

degree of insulin resistance ( 7 ). Androgens are mainly of ovarian origin but in 30% of the patients, they originate from the adrenal glands ( 8 ), the main representative being dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). The effect of this specific (mainly

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Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira, and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

Introduction Addison disease (AD) or primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening disease that results from bilateral destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex ( 1 ). PAI is a rare disease with a reported prevalence of

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Roland Därr, Jonas Kater, Peggy Sekula, Birke Bausch, Tobias Krauss, Christoph Bode, Gerd Walz, Hartmut P Neumann, and Stefan Zschiedrich

and their kindred ( 21 ). Accompanying this gratifying trend has been a noticeable increase in the discovery of asymptomatic adrenal and extra-adrenal masses suspicious of PHEO/PGL ( 22 , 23 , 24 ). These so-called incidentalomas tend to be smaller

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Ferdinand Roelfsema, Peter Y Liu, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, and Johannes D Veldhuis

Introduction Systemic inflammation due to cytokine activation is associated with varying degrees of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activation as part of the stress response to infection, burns, trauma, critical illness, autoimmune diseases, and

Open access

Maria Cristina De Martino, Richard A Feelders, Claudia Pivonello, Chiara Simeoli, Fortuna Papa, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello, and Leo J Hofland

research group largely contributed to the current knowledge on the subject. The mTOR pathway in normal adrenals In the normal adrenal gland, a layer-specific protein expression pattern of the major components of the mTOR pathway has been found

Open access

Marieke S Velema, Evie J M Linssen, Ad R M M Hermus, Hans J M M Groenewoud, Gert-Jan van der Wilt, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Jacques W M Lenders, Henri J L M Timmers, and Jaap Deinum

development and validation of prediction models ( 5 ). Patients Our cohort consisted of adult patients who underwent an SLT for clinically suspected PA at the Radboud Adrenal Center, a tertiary center of expertise for patients with adrenal disorders in

Open access

Kerry V Fanson, Tamara Keeley, and Benjamin G Fanson

from Thailand to Australia via Cocos Keeling Island at the beginning of the study ( Fig. 1 ; also see (33) regarding adrenal response to transfer). Sample collection was initiated on Cocos Keeling Island 3 months before the elephants were moved to