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V Guarnotta, C Di Stefano, A Santoro, A Ciresi, A Coppola and C Giordano

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, likely due to inappropriate glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and no physiological daily exposure. Indeed, conventional GC treatment, with hydrocortisone (HC

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Marloes L P Langelaan, Jérôme M H Kisters, Mirjam M Oosterwerff and Arjen-Kars Boer

binding proteins, such as CBG and albumin. An emerging role for salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) has, however, still to be defined. We investigated whether early morning salivary cortisol can be used to prevent ACTH

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Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer and Marcus Quinkler

GR functionality. In patients with bronchial asthma, the Bcl I polymorphism seems to at least partially explain the development of a severe form of asthma associated with resistance to glucocorticoids ( 10 ). Patients with adrenal insufficiency

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Thabiso R P Mofokeng, Salem A Beshyah, Fazleh Mahomed, Kwazi C Z Ndlovu and Ian L Ross

Introduction Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare, potentially fatal, but treatable disease ( 1 , 2 ). The estimated prevalence of PAI in South Africa is three per million ( 3 ), in contrast to Western countries in which prevalence

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Kamran Iqbal, Kate Halsby, Robert D Murray, Paul V Carroll and Robert Petermann

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a chronic, rare, potentially fatal condition. Primary AI (also known as Addison’s disease or hypoadrenalism) is caused by the loss of function of the adrenal cortex, whereas secondary AI results from

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Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Claudio Marelli, Sharif Uddin, Pierre Zelissen, Robert D Murray and on behalf of the EU-AIR Investigators

cortisone, resulting in higher systemic availability of the active 11β-hydroxy form, prednisolone ( 12 ). Prednisolone is used in some patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) as hormone replacement therapy. Advocates of prednisolone highlight that it

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Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

Introduction Addison disease (AD) or primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening disease that results from bilateral destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex ( 1 ). PAI is a rare disease with a reported prevalence of

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Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Julia Schulz, Manfred Ventz, Kathrin Zopf and Marcus Quinkler

Introduction In states of adrenal insufficiency (AI), such as primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), glucocorticoids (GCs) are given in low doses as hormone replacement therapy. However, the daily intake

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David J F Smith, Hemanth Prabhudev, Sirazum Choudhury and Karim Meeran

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is caused either by primary adrenal failure or secondary impairment of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis ( 1 ). Both result in glucocorticoid deficiency with additional impairment of

Open access

Anastasia P Athanasoulia-Kaspar, Matthias K Auer, Günter K Stalla and Mira Jakovcevski

.a. Hypothyroidism 67 (58.3) 0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Adrenal insufficiency (all under substitution with hydrocortisone) 52 0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Diabetes insipidus 18 (15.7) 0 n.a. n