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Kaiyu Pan, Chengyue Zhang, Xiaocong Yao and Zhongxin Zhu

older age ( 2 ). The recommendations for Ca intake vary by country, and the optimal amount of Ca intake to maintain skeletal growth remains unclear ( 3 ). The Ca recommended dietary allowances for US adolescent males and females aged 9 to 18 years is 1

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Maria Lola Evia-Viscarra, Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero, Evelia Apolinar-Jiménez and Silvia Quintana-Vargas

percentile, at 14.6% among children (5–11 years) and 13.3% among adolescents (12–19 years) (1) . These prevalence rates are similar to those reported in other high-prevalence countries (2) . Pediatric obesity is accompanied by various conditions: orthopedic

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Giorgio Bedogni, Andrea Mari, Alessandra De Col, Sofia Tamini, Amalia Gastaldelli and Alessandro Sartorio

Introduction The prevalence of childhood type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide ( 1 ). T2DM is characterized by visceral obesity, insulin resistance and defective β-cell function. In children and adolescents, glucose

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Adriano N Cury, Verônica T Meira, Osmar Monte, Marília Marone, Nilza M Scalissi, Cristiane Kochi, Luís E P Calliari and Carlos A Longui

-line treatment in children (11) . Thus, long-term experience with significantly more patients who undergo RAI therapy is needed to determine its safety profile in children and adolescents. There is also concern with regard to its potential carcinogenic effects

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Anru Wang, Xueqin Yan, Cai Zhang, Caiqi Du, Wenjun Long, Di Zhan and Xiaoping Luo

Introduction The worldwide prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has increased in past years ( 1 ). Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and long-term cardiovascular complications

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Giorgio Radetti, Mariacarolina Salerno, Chiara Guzzetti, Marco Cappa, Andrea Corrias, Alessandra Cassio, Graziano Cesaretti, Roberto Gastaldi, Mario Rotondi, Fiorenzo Lupi, Antonio Fanolla, Giovanna Weber and Sandro Loche

started in patients with either subclinical (high TSH with normal fT4) or overt hypothyroidism (subnormal fT4 and increased TSH). There is no consensus on the timing to start or discontinue therapy based on TSH concentrations in children and adolescents

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Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu and Mei Li

children and adolescents ( 1 ). The estimated incidence of type 1 diabetes per 100,000 persons years for all ages in China was 1.01 ( 2 ). However, the mean annual age-standardized incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth aged 5–19 years was 1

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Karolien Van De Maele, Jean De Schepper, Jesse Vanbesien, Monique Van Helvoirt, Ann De Guchtenaere and Inge Gies

Introduction Obese adolescents are a population known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which is defined as a serum 25-OH-D level below 20 µg/L according to the guidelines set by the Endocrine Society (based on the Institute Of Medicine

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Nafiye Helvaci, Erdem Karabulut, Ahmet Ugur Demir and Bulent Okan Yildiz

studies is presented in Fig. 1 . Eight studies conducted in adults and five studies conducted in adolescents including a total of 404 PCOS patients and 611 control subjects were identified. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the studies included

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Iben Katinka Greiber, Casper P Hagen, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Mikkel Grunnet Mieritz, Lise Aksglæde, Katharina Main, Kristian Almstrup and Anders Juul

association study (GWAS) of British adolescents, a considerable part of inter-individual variation of circulating AMH levels was explained by genetic variation of AMH in young men but not in women ( 26 ). The present study is to our knowledge the first to