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Aida Javanbakht, Massimo D’Apuzzo, Behnam Badie, and Behrouz Salehian

Introduction Pituitary metastasis (Pit Met) is a rare condition first reported for the by Ludwig Benjamin in 1857 and subsequently by Harvey Cushing in 1913 ( 1 ). Detection of Pit Met is difficult, as they are easily missed in imaging studies

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Ali Abbara, Sophie Clarke, Pei Chia Eng, James Milburn, Devavrata Joshi, Alexander N Comninos, Rozana Ramli, Amrish Mehta, Brynmor Jones, Florian Wernig, Ramesh Nair, Nigel Mendoza, Amir H Sam, Emma Hatfield, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo, and Niamh M Martin

Introduction Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome defined by an abrupt onset of headache, vomiting, visual impairment and/or reduced conscious level, due to rapid expansion of the contents of the sella turcica, caused by haemorrhage or

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Fizzah Iqbal, William Adams, Ioannis Dimitropoulos, Samiul Muquit, and Daniel Flanagan

infarction in a specific tissue such as the pituitary. Classically patients present with sudden onset severe headache. There may be accompanying meningism, vomiting, confusion and visual dysfunction. In addition, neuro-ophthalmologic signs may involve the

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Sirazum Choudhury, Tricia Tan, Katharine Lazarus, and Karim Meeran

benefits from innervation from the retina, allowing entrainment by day–night cycle ( 27 ). It is signalling from the ‘master’ clock which informs the ‘slave’ clocks residing in all other tissues that maintain synchrony ( 25 ). In the hypothalamic-pituitary

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Arno Téblick, Lies Langouche, and Greet Van den Berghe

neuroendocrine axes is attenuated, together with complex alterations in peripheral hormone levels. Two tandem key players in regulating the stress response in critically ill patients are the hypothalamus and pituitary. The hypothalamus, the major control center

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Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński, and Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

are the most typical causes of brain injuries. Pituitary dysfunction resulting as a consequence of brain injury is not a new phenomenon – the first article illustrating the matter was published in 1918 ( 8 ). Nowadays, the topic is gaining more and

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Morten Winkler Møller, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Christian Bonde Pedersen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, and Frantz Rom Poulsen

Introduction Pituitary adenomas (PAs) account for 10–25% of intracranial tumors ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). They arise from adenohypophyseal cells, despite their benign nature, 25–55% of PAs show invasive growth ( 4 ), expanding into suprasellar ( 5

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Giovanni Tulipano

Introduction The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain and consists of two distinct structures, the anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis and the posterior lobe or neurohypophysis. The activity of the anterior pituitary is

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Eva Jakobsson Ung, Ann-Charlotte Olofsson, Ida Björkman, Tobias Hallén, Daniel S Olsson, Oskar Ragnarsson, Thomas Skoglund, Sofie Jakobsson, and Gudmundur Johannsson

Introduction Pituitary tumours are rare; for example, the annual incidence of non-functioning pituitary adenomas is 0.65–2.34 per 100,000 ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Although most pituitary tumours are benign, patients often need to undergo surgery and

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Adrian F Daly, David A Cano, Eva Venegas-Moreno, Patrick Petrossians, Elena Dios, Emilie Castermans, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Vincent Bours, Albert Beckers, and Alfonso Soto-Moreno

Introduction Clinically apparent pituitary adenomas are present in about 1:1000 of the general population in Europe; the most frequent sub-types are prolactinomas, non-secreting adenomas and somatotropinomas, while Cushing’s disease and