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Irvin M Modlin, Harry Aslanian, Lisa Bodei, Ignat Drozdov and Mark Kidd

Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) Summit conference proceedings of 2008 identified that a critical unmet need in the management of NET disease was the absence of a sensitive and specific set of tumor

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Ashley K Clift, Omar Faiz, Robert Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin M Modlin and Andrea Frilling

Introduction Small bowel (SB) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are accruing significant clinical attention due to their increasing incidence ( 1 , 2 ) in addition to recent advances in their molecular biology ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ) and treatment

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R C S van Adrichem, L J Hofland, R A Feelders, M C De Martino, P M van Koetsveld, C H J van Eijck, R R de Krijger, D M Sprij-Mooij, J A M J L Janssen and W W de Herder

considered as important biochemical and pathological markers, respectively, for GEP NET clinical behaviour. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been suggested as an important regulator of GEP NET proliferation and differentiation (2) . Up to

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Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty and Wouter W de Herder

function of ghrelin in NETs is not well understood. It has been suggested that ghrelin could be responsible for the striking maintenance of body mass index (BMI) that can be observed in NET patients ( 15 , 28 ). Although total serum ghrelin levels in NET

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Elham Barazeghi, Per Hellman, Gunnar Westin and Peter Stålberg

give rise to carcinoid syndrome as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in approximately 20% of SI-NET patients. To date, genetic and epigenetic alterations in SI-NETs are poorly studied. Massive DNA sequencing analysis on SI-NETs revealed that

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Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland

with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Oncology Outcomes Database, we identified all patients 18 years of age or older who presented to either UCSF or OSUMC for care of a NET on or after January 1, 2004 and before December 31, 2008

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Filippo Ceccato, Diego Cecchin, Michele Gregianin, Giacomo Ricci, Cristina Campi, Filippo Crimì, Marta Bergamo, Annibale Versari, Carmelo Lacognata, Federico Rea, Mattia Barbot and Carla Scaroni

follow-up (median 2 years), therefore were considered covert EAS: five were bronchial carcinoids and one pancreatic NET. One of them was found during CT and it never showed a pathological uptake of 68 Ga-SSTR; another tumour was not initially seen by

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Samira M Sadowski, Emanuel Christ, Benoit Bédat, Attila Kollár, Wolfram Karenovics, Aurel Perren, Frédéric Triponez and on behalf of the SwissNET registry

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs (LNET) represent approximately 30% of all NET ( 1 , 2 ) and account for 1–2% of all lung tumors. Lung NETs are classified into typical carcinoid (TC, low-grade tumors) and atypical carcinoid (AC

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Logan Mills, Panagiotis Drymousis, Yogesh Vashist, Christoph Burdelski, Andreas Prachalias, Parthi Srinivasan, Krishna Menon, Corina Cotoi, Saboor Khan, Judith Cave, Thomas Armstrong, Martin O Weickert, Jakob Izbicki, Joerg Schrader, Andreja Frilling, John K Ramage and Raj Srirajaskanthan

prevalence of malignant features and identify any useful predictive variables. Materials and methods Patient selection The study was designed as a multicentre, retrospective surgical cohort review. Patients were selected using the local NET

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K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar and J G van den Berg

of unravelling the molecular events underlying NET tumorigenesis, facilitating the identification of novel therapeutic targets, rational (targeted) therapy management strategies and to improve prognosis. Recently, whole-genome sequencing of primary