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Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou, and Mark S Cooper

Background Acute inflammation is typically associated with an activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in an increase in the level of glucocorticoids within the circulation ( 1 ). In situations where this

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Michelle Romijn, Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Michaela F Hartmann, Johannes B van Goudoever, Stefan A Wudy, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

) handicaps and had lower scores on tests of neurodevelopment than their female counterparts ( 5 , 6 ). Integrity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is crucial during critical illnesses. Among preterm infants, the HPA axis seems to be

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Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

-borne) HPA axis. All the components are present in the brain, and, in relation to the hypothesis that the adrenal itself is crucial to addiction, it is important to unravel the relationship between brain and systemic HPA function. This section examines the

Open access

Lisa Arnetz, Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Kerstin Brismar, and Michael Alvarsson

–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, studies have shown discrepant results, reporting both increased and decreased activation (2) . Cortisol has effects opposite to those of insulin on glucose metabolism, decreasing glucose uptake and increasing gluconeogenesis (1, 2, 3

Open access

Fahim Ebrahimi, Sandrine A Urwyler, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Luca Bernasconi, Peter Neyer, Marc Y Donath, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

leads to an increased activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis with excess of glucocorticoids which are known to increase the risk for metabolic complications and cardiovascular mortality ( 6 ). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to

Open access

Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Erica L T van den Akker, Joost Rotteveel, Adriaan Honig, and Martijn J J Finken

fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which are protective in the short term, but might pose a risk in the long term ( 3 ). The development of the fetal HPA axis is, among other factors, influenced by the placental transfer of maternal GCs

Open access

I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Giorgia Antonelli, Mattia Barbot, Andrea Daniele, Marco Boscaro, Mario Plebani, and Carla Scaroni

only confirm central AI in patients with very low morning basal serum F levels (≤83 nmol/L, 3 µg/dL), whereas only high serum F levels (≥415 nmol/L) can confirm a normal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 2 ). A confirmatory dynamic test is

Open access

Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner, and Christoph Henzen

route of administration, the varied systemic side effects of oral or intravenous glucocorticoids should be minimized, in particular the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis or the inhibition of osteoblast function. Even after

Open access

Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík, and Jirˇí Pácha

Introduction Stress is a ubiquitous condition that affects both people and animals. It initiates a series of events, culminating in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), including