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Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou and Mark S Cooper

Background Acute inflammation is typically associated with an activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in an increase in the level of glucocorticoids within the circulation ( 1 ). In situations where this

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Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

-borne) HPA axis. All the components are present in the brain, and, in relation to the hypothesis that the adrenal itself is crucial to addiction, it is important to unravel the relationship between brain and systemic HPA function. This section examines the

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Lisa Arnetz, Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Kerstin Brismar and Michael Alvarsson

–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, studies have shown discrepant results, reporting both increased and decreased activation (2) . Cortisol has effects opposite to those of insulin on glucose metabolism, decreasing glucose uptake and increasing gluconeogenesis (1, 2, 3

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Fahim Ebrahimi, Sandrine A Urwyler, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Luca Bernasconi, Peter Neyer, Marc Y Donath and Mirjam Christ-Crain

leads to an increased activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis with excess of glucocorticoids which are known to increase the risk for metabolic complications and cardiovascular mortality ( 6 ). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to

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Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Erica L T van den Akker, Joost Rotteveel, Adriaan Honig and Martijn J J Finken

fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which are protective in the short term, but might pose a risk in the long term ( 3 ). The development of the fetal HPA axis is, among other factors, influenced by the placental transfer of maternal GCs

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner and Christoph Henzen

route of administration, the varied systemic side effects of oral or intravenous glucocorticoids should be minimized, in particular the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis or the inhibition of osteoblast function. Even after

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

Introduction Stress is a ubiquitous condition that affects both people and animals. It initiates a series of events, culminating in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), including

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Hershel Raff and Hariprasad Trivedi

Introduction The measurement of salivary cortisol has emerged as a first-line test in the evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in humans and, in particular, for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing

Open access

Morten Winkler Møller, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Christian Bonde Pedersen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen and Frantz Rom Poulsen

–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis (s-ACTH, s-cortisol and Synacthen test). Deficiency in either axis was defined as biochemical data outside reference values for the specific hormone or if patients were already on substitution therapy. Intact function was defined as hormone