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Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Fang Xu, Xiaolu Shen, Xuanyu Chen, Jieqiang Lv, and Songying Zhang

etiology of PCOS is complex and unclear, recent studies reveal that androgens excess and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the progression and pathogenesis of PCOS ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). Clinical studies showed that hyperandrogenism is

Open access

Selina Mäkinen, Yen H Nguyen, Paulina Skrobuk, and Heikki A Koistinen

). GSK-3β Palmitate led to a decrease in insulin-stimulated GSK3β phosphorylation, which was recovered by co-incubation with oleate ( Fig. 1C ). ER stress and AMPK signalling PERK Incubation with palmitate for 12 h induced ER stress as

Open access

Sara Ullsten, Sara Bohman, Marie E Oskarsson, K Peter R Nilsson, Gunilla T Westermark, and Per-Ola Carlsson

proIAPP due to aberrant processing by the prohormones PC1/3 and PC2 may result in misfolding (22, 23). Also, ER stress induced by chronic hyperglycemia or compensatory insulin production, and glycosaminoglycans like heparan sulfates, have been suggested as

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Eric Seidel, Gudrun Walenda, Clemens Messerschmidt, Benedikt Obermayer, Mirko Peitzsch, Paal Wallace, Rohini Bahethi, Taekyeong Yoo, Murim Choi, Petra Schrade, Sebastian Bachmann, Gerhard Liebisch, Graeme Eisenhofer, Dieter Beule, and Ute I Scholl

). Because SOAT catalyzes the generation of cholesterol esters from free sterol and acyl CoA ( 14 ), inhibition of its activity has been proposed to result in elevated levels of free cholesterol, ER stress and apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms of acquired

Open access

Xuhua Mao, Hucheng Chen, Junmin Tang, Liangliang Wang, and Tingting Shu

). Indeed, stimulation with high glucose leads to increased self-oxidation, generating large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which inevitably induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits insulin synthesis ( 23 ). However, the ER stress

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Leanne Hodson and Fredrik Karpe

(ER) stress, leading to cellular dysfunction and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory pathways ( 44 , 45 , 46 ). Insulin resistance and hepatic DNL The relative contribution of DNL-derived fatty acids to IHTAG in individuals with NAFLD has been

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Lin Ji, Huan-Tong Wu, Xiao-Yan Qin, and Rongfeng Lan

of β-cells also play significant roles in diabetes pathogenesis. Reducing CPE protein levels by palmitate and shRNA in β-cells increases ER stress and cell death, whereas overexpression of CPE protects β-cells from palmitate-induced ER stress and

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Tingting Shu, Zhigang Lv, Yuchun Xie, Junming Tang, and Xuhua Mao

), ( 19 ) which influences the energy supply required for insulin secretion ( 20 ). Moreover, mitochondrial function becomes impaired, which induces endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ER stress), leading to β-cell apoptosis ( 21 , 22 ). In the

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Karim Gariani and François R Jornayvaz

increased flux of hepatic FFAs induces the accumulation of TG, which cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress. Intestinal permeability participates in the activation of hepatic inflammation and ER stress. Altogether these multiple parallel hits lead to

Open access

Sarah Christine Sentis, Rebecca Oelkrug, and Jens Mittag

Martínez-Sánchez N Seoane-Collazo P Contreras C Varela L Villarroya J Rial-Pensado E Buqué X Aurrekoetxea I Delgado TC Vázquez-Martínez R Hypothalamic AMPK-ER stress-JNK1 axis mediates the central actions of thyroid hormones on energy