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Bingbing Wang, Mayra Cruz Ithier, Nataliya Parobchak, Stacy M Yadava, Jay Schulkin and Todd Rosen

involving 477 women that vitamin D supplementation reduces preterm birth risk ( 3 ). Maternal vitamin D deficiency and elevated CRH have also been linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction and

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Greta B Raglan, Louis A Schmidt and Jay Schulkin

Introduction Stress reactions are by no means universal, and the activation of ‘stress hormones’, such as glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), is not necessarily the mark of a stress response ( 1 ). Some individuals have

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Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro and Susana Silberstein

Introduction The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, also named CRF) plays a key role in the integration of neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to stress ( 1 ). Hypothalamic paraventricular CRH-secreting neurons

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Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

evidence for brain HPA function in addiction and shows that it is not autonomous, and its function is closely regulated by and linked to the systemic HPA. Corticotrophin releasing hormone Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is produced in various parts

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Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Anil Bhansali, Vivek Gupta, Paramjeet Singh, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Akhilesh Sharma, Rakesh K Vashishtha, Suja P Sukumar, Naresh Sachdeva and Rama Walia

ACTH production ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). Animal studies have shown that vasopressin is more potent stimulus for ACTH secretion than CRH. However, human studies have shown that vasopressin is equipotent to hCRH for ACTH release ( 13 , 14 , 15

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Benedetta Zampetti, Erika Grossrubatscher, Paolo Dalino Ciaramella, Edoardo Boccardi and Paola Loli

accuracy of the stimulatory and inhibitory hormone tests is suboptimal: 65–100% sensitivity and 60–100% specificity for the high-dose dexamethasone test and 70–93% sensitivity and 95–100% specificity for the CRH test ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8

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M S Elston, V B Crawford, M Swarbrick, M S Dray, M Head and J V Conaglen

, carcinoid tumour and teratoma) ( 4 , 5 , 6 ) and genitourinary sources including the prostate ( 7 ) as well as cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal ( 8 ). Prostate cancer causing CS due to ectopic ACTH or CRH production is rare with <30 published cases

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Elizabeth Micks, Greta B Raglan and Jay Schulkin

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in both the brain and placenta, and antagonism with the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) are also important mechanisms that account for the efficacy of progesterone in the prevention of preterm labor (19

Open access

Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou and Mark S Cooper

the central nervous system. (B) Relative expression of different genes in the hypothalamus. AVP, arginine vasopressin; CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; GR, glucocorticoid receptor; MR, mineralocorticoid receptor. (C) Relative expression of