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Kennett Sprogøe, Eva Mortensen, David B Karpf, and Jonathan A Leff

Introduction Following secretion from the anterior pituitary, human growth hormone (GH) is transported throughout the body, exerting its effects via GH receptors on virtually every cell of the body. In addition to muscle and bone growth, GH is

Open access

M Ahmid, C G Perry, S F Ahmed, and M G Shaikh

Introduction Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an endocrine condition that can potentially impact on an individual’s life from childhood, adolescence to young adulthood and beyond. In UK, the prevalence of congenital childhood-onset GHD (CO

Open access

Werner F Blum, Abdullah Alherbish, Afaf Alsagheir, Ahmed El Awwa, Walid Kaplan, Ekaterina Koledova, and Martin O Savage

Introduction The growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is the principle endocrine system regulating linear growth in children ( 1 ). Linked to the nutritional status of the individual, GH is a potent stimulator of IGF

Open access

Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff, and Michael Beckert

Introduction Hypothalamic–pituitary diseases and/or injury can lead to adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) ( 1 ). The decrease (or total loss) of growth hormone (GH) production, with a subsequent disruption in the hormone’s relationship

Open access

Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Michele Vacca, Roberto Salvatori, and Luigi Brunetti

Introduction Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH), GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in addition to their recognised metabolic and endocrine effects, play a pivotal role in brain functions ( 1 , 2 ). Serum GH and IGF-1

Open access

Urszula Smyczyńska, Joanna Smyczyńska, Maciej Hilczer, Renata Stawerska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, and Andrzej Lewiński

Introduction Growth hormone (GH) therapy is widely approved in children with short stature caused by GH deficiency (GHD). It has also been documented that GH therapy may be beneficial in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS); however

Open access

Jin Kyu Oh, Young Jae Im, Kwanjin Park, and Jae-Seung Paick

frequent causes include growth hormone (GH) deficiencies and idiopathic functional abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis, and overt abnormalities are generally absent under these conditions ( 2 , 3 ). Patients with micropenis are

Open access

Robert Rapaport, Peter A Lee, Judith L Ross, Paul Saenger, Vlady Ostrow, and Giuseppe Piccoli

Introduction Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is widely utilized for improving height in children with growth failure and conditions in which it is efficacious, including isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD

Open access

Sarmistha Banerjee, Allison M Hayes, and Bernard H Shapiro

of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 ( 3 , 4 ) while in the case of mice, males express greater levels of CYP2D9 ( 2 ). (ii) The sexual dimorphisms in CYP expression are determined by sex differences in the circulating growth hormone (GH) profiles in adulthood. More

Open access

María L Bacigalupo, Verónica G Piazza, Nadia S Cicconi, Pablo Carabias, Andrzej Bartke, Yimin Fang, Ana I Sotelo, Gabriel A Rabinovich, María F Troncoso, and Johanna G Miquet

, alcohol abuse or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Regardless of the carcinogenic insult, it usually develops in patients with cirrhosis due to chronic inflammation and advanced fibrosis ( 2 ). Growth hormone (GH) is a major regulator of body growth and