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David Mark Robertson Department of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
School of Women’s & Children’s Health, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

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Chel Hee Lee Clinical Research Support Unit, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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Angela Baerwald Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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follicle stimulating hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome and normal women . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2007 92 1871 – 1874 . 11 Ogura-Nose S Yoshino O Osuga Y Shi J Hiroi H Yano T Taketani Y. Anti

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Martin Bidlingmaier Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany

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Helena Gleeson Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK

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Ana-Claudia Latronico Department of Internal Medicine, Discipline of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sao Paulo Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Martin O Savage Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK

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adulthood CPP, central precocious puberty; GnHR, gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone; LH, luteinising hormone; PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome. MKRN3 mutations Loss-of-function mutations of the Makorin RING finger protein 3

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Jana Ernst Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Katharina Gert Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Frank Bernhard Kraus Central Laboratory, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Ernst-Grube-Strasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Ulrike Elisabeth Rolle-Kampczyk Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

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Martin Wabitsch Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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Faramarz Dehghani Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Kristina Schaedlich Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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– 73 . (doi:10.1056/NEJMra0708473 10.1056/NEJMra0708473 6 Dunaif A. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis . Endocrine Reviews 1997 18 774 – 800 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv.18

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Emanuela Zaharieva Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Zdravko Kamenov Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Tsvetelina Velikova Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital St. Ivan Rilski, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Adelina Tsakova Department of Clinical Laboratory, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Central Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Yosif El-Darawish Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Cell Therapy, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan

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Haruki Okamura Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Cell Therapy, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan

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-Carretero JI Villuendas G Sancho J San Millán JL. Serum interleukin-18 concentrations are increased in the polycystic ovary syndrome: relationship to insulin resistance and to obesity . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004 89 806 – 811

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Hong Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jie Cao Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jian-bin Su Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xue-qin Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Dong-mei Zhang Medical Research Center, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xiao-hua Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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lead to an increase in thrombin and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TFAI). The TFAI was also an indicator of insulin resistance in T2D and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 39 , 40 ). Furthermore, serum AT3 activity was found to decrease

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André Marques-Pinto Serviço de Endocrinologia, Departamento de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Davide Carvalho Serviço de Endocrinologia, Departamento de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Serviço de Endocrinologia, Departamento de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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, disorders of the uterus and disorders of the ovary, such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (26) . The incidence of these conditions is growing (72) . As they may arise from impaired ovarian development and function

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Hui Long Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yanhong Nie Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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Li Wang Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yong Lu Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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Yan Wang Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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Yijun Cai Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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Zhen Liu Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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Miaomiao Jia Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Qifeng Lyu Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yanping Kuang Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Qiang Sun Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China

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Bungum L Franssohn F Bungum M Humaidan P Giwercman A. The circadian variation in Anti-Mullerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women . PLoS ONE 2013 8 e68223 . ( https://doi.org/10

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Sarah Byberg Department of Medical Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jesper Futtrup Panum Institute, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mikkel Andreassen Department of Medical Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jesper Krogh Department of Medical Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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levels correlated with insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome ( 21 ). Dopamine is the natural negative regulator of prolactin release from the anterior pituitary gland, and dopamine D2 receptor agonists are the first line of

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Katarzyna Wyskida Health Promotion and Obesity Management Unit, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical Faculty of Silesia in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Grzegorz Franik Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical Faculty of Silesia in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Tomasz Wikarek Department of Gynecology, Medical Faculty of Silesia in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Aleksander Owczarek Department of Statistics, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Alham Delroba Health Promotion and Obesity Management Unit, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical Faculty of Silesia in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Jerzy Chudek Pathophysiology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical Faculty of Silesia in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Jerzy Sikora Department of Perinatology and Gynecology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz Health Promotion and Obesity Management Unit, Department of Pathophysiology, Medical Faculty of Silesia in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

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mass index (BMI) during the 3-month period before the study. Patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Cushing’s syndrome, thyroid dysfunctions, androgen-secreting tumor, and enzyme deficiency (21-hydroxylase in particular), decreased

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Yali Cheng Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Qiaoying Lv Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bingying Xie Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bingyi Yang Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Weiwei Shan Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Chengcheng Ning Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bing Li Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Liying Xie Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Chao Gu Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xuezhen Luo Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xiaojun Chen Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Qin Zhu Department of Pathology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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( 17 ), type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 18 ) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 10 ), is the risk factor for EC. A prospective cohort study notes that ‘insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome,’ ‘steroids,’ and ‘inflammation’ factors are the three risk

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