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Sanna Mustaniemi Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Marja Vääräsmäki Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Johan G Eriksson Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

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Mika Gissler Information Services Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
Division of Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

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Hannele Laivuori Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Hilkka Ijäs Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Aini Bloigu PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Eero Kajantie Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Laure Morin-Papunen PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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.5 mmol/L and 1 h after meal ≥7.8 mmol/L). Of these participants, 13 (54.2%) were treated with insulin, ten with diet (41.7%) and one (4.2%) with metformin. Women with self-reported symptoms and/or prior diagnosis of PCOS Because the study was

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Alessandra Gambineri Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Carla Pelusi Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Patton L Vaccina A Cacciari M Morselli-Labate AM Cavazza C Pagotto U Pasquali R. Treatment with flutamide, metformin, and their combination added to a hypocaloric diet in overweight-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, 12-month

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Lena-Maria Levin Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

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Henry Völzke Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald, Germany
DZD (German Center for Diabetes Research), Greifswald, Germany

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Markus M Lerch Department of Medicine A, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

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Jens-Peter Kühn Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Institute and Policlinic for Radiology and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, Carl-Gustav-Carus University Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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Matthias Nauck Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald, Germany

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Nele Friedrich Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald, Germany

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Stephanie Zylla Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald, Germany

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diabetes (e.g., metformin, rosiglitazone or pioglitazone) on chemerin and adiponectin concentrations has been reported ( 19 , 27 ). Therefore, all subjects taking anti-diabetic drugs (classified according to anatomic, therapeutic and chemical (ATC) code A

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Teresa Vilariño-García Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology. Medical School, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, University of Seville, Seville, Spain

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Antonio Pérez-Pérez Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology. Medical School, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, University of Seville, Seville, Spain

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Esther Santamaría-López Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI), Seville, Spain

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Nicolás Prados Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI), Seville, Spain

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Manuel Fernández-Sánchez Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI), Seville, Spain

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Víctor Sánchez-Margalet Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology. Medical School, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, University of Seville, Seville, Spain

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. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2015 100 911 – 919 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-3886 ) 18 Codner E Iñíguez G López P Mujica V Eyzaguirre FC Asenjo S Torrealba I Cassorla F . Metformin for the treatment of

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Cinthia Marenza Ormond Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Nayara de Souza Santos Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Camila Regis Banhara Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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correlation between APA secretion and insulin resistance in PCOS patients ( 56 ). However, the use of metformin was shown to decrease ∆5 17-OHPE and 17-OHP4, indicating that increased levels of adrenal androgens, including 17-OHPE, are negatively associated

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C L Bodinham
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L Smith
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E L Thomas Nutrition, Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Metabolism and Diabetes Research Group, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Leggett Building, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7WG, UK

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J D Bell Nutrition, Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Metabolism and Diabetes Research Group, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Leggett Building, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7WG, UK

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J R Swann Nutrition, Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Metabolism and Diabetes Research Group, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Leggett Building, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7WG, UK

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A Costabile Nutrition, Metabolic and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Metabolism and Diabetes Research Group, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Leggett Building, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7WG, UK

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D Russell-Jones
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A M Umpleby
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M D Robertson
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, mean BMI 30.6 ( s.e.m . 1.3) kg/m 2 ) were enrolled in this study. All participants had well-controlled diabetes (mean HbA1c levels of 46.6 ( s.e.m . 2) mmol/mol at screening) and were diet and exercise controlled (2/17), taking metformin (13/17) or

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Jay Toulany College of Pharmacy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Sebastian D Parlee Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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Christopher J Sinal Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Kathryn Slayter Canadian Centre for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Shelly McNeil Canadian Centre for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Kerry B Goralski College of Pharmacy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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criteria included subjects taking medications associated with enhanced chemerin production (insulin and metformin) ( 26 ) or inhibition of degradation (ACE inhibitors) ( 6 , 35 ). Additionally, subjects with renal impairment (creatinine clearance <60 mL

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Thomas Reinehr Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Alexandra Kulle Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Schleswig – Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel/Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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Juliane Rothermel Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Caroline Knop-Schmenn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Nina Lass Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Christina Bosse Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Paul-Martin Holterhus Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Schleswig – Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel/Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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-1609 ) 6 Hoeger K Davidson K Kochman L Cherry T Kopin L Guzick DS. The impact of metformin, oral contraceptives, and lifestyle modification on polycystic ovary syndrome in obese adolescent women in two randomized, placebo

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Xi Zhang Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Graduate School, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Xiurong Shen Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Graduate School, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Wan Zhou Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Mengyun Xu Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Yan Xing Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Jianping Weng Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Shandong Ye Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Suowen Xu Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Zhi Zhang Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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Wei Wang Department of Endocrinology and Laboratory for Diabetes, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China

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J Wojta J Huk I Demyanets S Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is elevated in type 2 diabetics with carotid artery stenosis and reduced under metformin treatment . Cardiovascular Diabetology 2017 16 98. ( https://doi.org/10

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Verônica Carneiro Borges Mioto Thyroid Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Ana Carolina de Castro Nassif Gomes Monteiro Ultrasound Unit, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Rosalinda Yossie Asato de Camargo Thyroid Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Andréia Rodrigues Borel Clinic of the Paraisópolis Community Einstein Project, Jewish School of Health Sciences Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Regina Maria Catarino Hematology and Biochemistry, Center of Pathology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Sergio Kobayashi Ultrasound Unit, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Maria Cristina Chammas Ultrasound Unit, Department of Radiology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Suemi Marui Thyroid Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP-Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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taking iodine-containing supplements and thyroxine or drugs that interfere with thyroid function (amiodarone, glucocorticoid, lithium, biotin, metformin) also were excluded from the study. The first analysis excluded pregnant women with thyroperoxidase

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