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Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti and Valeria Sordi

double over the next decade (for review see ( 2 )). Since 1922, exogenous insulin administration has been the most important lifesaving intervention for all T1D patients; however, chronic insulin treatment is a double-edged sword since it fails to

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Yongli Fu, Yaowu Sun, Jiankun Zhang and Yu Cheng

existing uncertain evidence regarding this issue using the systematic review and meta-analysis of all published literature. Methods Literature search We performed the meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews

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Agnès Linglart, Martin Biosse-Duplan, Karine Briot, Catherine Chaussain, Laure Esterle, Séverine Guillaume-Czitrom, Peter Kamenicky, Jerome Nevoux, Dominique Prié, Anya Rothenbuhler, Philippe Wicart and Pol Harvengt

adolescence. Causes of phosphate wasting are mostly due to genetic defects in factors necessary for phosphate handling; for a review read (1) . They have been summarized in Table 1 . In this review, we will consider two different types of phosphate wasting

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Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Kirstine Stochholm, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Sten Schytte, Stefano Christian Londero, Henrik Baymler Pedersen, Christoffer Holst Hahn, Bjarki Ditlev Djurhuus, Jens Bentzen, Sören Möller, Mette Gaustadnes, Maria Rossing, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Kim Brixen, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Christian Godballe and the Danish Thyroid Cancer Group (DATHYRCA)

One patient RET tested subsequent to the end date of the RET cohort in December 31, 2014. To classify the 207 molecularly unclassified MTC patients, several sources were used. First, a review of available medical records ( n  = 149) was

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Satoshi Higuchi, Hideki Ota, Takuya Ueda, Yuta Tezuka, Kei Omata, Yoshikiyo Ono, Ryo Morimoto, Masataka Kudo, Fumitoshi Satoh and Kei Takase

. Cardiovascular manifestations of pheochromocytoma . Cardiology in Review 2017 25 215 – 222 . ( ) 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000141 28786897 4 Yu R Nissen NN Bannykh SI . Cardiac complications as initial

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K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar and J G van den Berg

genomic landscape of SI-NETs remains poorly elucidated and biomarkers have not yet been identified. Moreover, the genetic constitution of SI-NETs has been shown to differ compared to pancreatic NETs ( 11 ). With this review we aim to provide the clinician

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Zeming Liu, Di Hu, Yihui Huang, Sichao Chen, Wen Zeng, Ling Zhou, Wei Zhou, Min Wang, Haifeng Feng, Wei Wei, Chao Zhang, Danyang Chen and Liang Guo

undertook the research, Y H H, S C C and W Z performed the analyses, Z M L and D H wrote the main manuscript text and prepared figures. All authors reviewed the manuscript. References 1 Pacini F Schlumberger M Dralle H Elisei R Smit JW Wiersinga W

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Benjamin G Challis, Andrew S Powlson, Ruth T Casey, Carla Pearson, Brian Y Lam, Marcella Ma, Deborah Pitfield, Giles S H Yeo, Edmund Godfrey, Heok K Cheow, V Krishna Chatterjee, Nicholas R Carroll, Ashley Shaw, John R Buscombe and Helen L Simpson

involved in tumour development and autonomous insulin secretion. Patients and methods Study population We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients presenting to our institution between 2003 and 2016 with a diagnosis of

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Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

Adipose tissue secretes a variety of active biological substances, called adipocytokines, that act in an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine manner. They have roles in appetite control, thermogenesis, and thyroid and reproductive functions. All these molecules may lead to local and generalized inflammation, mediating obesity-associated vascular disorders including hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in body weight, thermogenesis, and energy expenditure. The connections between cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and thyroid dysfunction have been reported in several studies. The adipocytokines serve as causative or protective factors in the development of these disorders in the states of thyroid dysfunction. Abnormal levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin (ADP), leptin, resistin, vaspin, and visfatin) in hypo- and hyperthyroidism have been reported with controversial results. This review aims to update the implication of novel adipokines ADP, vaspin, and visfatin in thyroid dysfunction.

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Jordyn Silverstein, Wesley Kidder, Susan J Fisher, Thomas A. Hope, Samantha Maisel, Dianna Ng, Jessica Van Zifle, Chloe Atreya and Katherine Van Loon

BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) during the peri-partum period is challenging to diagnose due to the overlapping symptoms of CRC and pregnancy. This is the first case series to investigate clinicopathologic, hormononal, and molecular features of CRC diagnosed during the peri-partum period. We hypothesized that advanced presentations of CRC could possibly be mitigated by pregnancy-related hormonal factors.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of five women diagnosed with CRC during the peri-partum period and studied the clinical and molecular features of their cancer.

RESULTS: All patients presented with stage IV CRC at diagnosis; three had primary tumors in the rectum, and two had primary tumors in the sigmoid colon. The liver was the most common metastatic site (3 of 5 women). Immunohistochemistry stains were negative for estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), and one tumor demonstrated low-level positivity for PR (1%). Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from each case were tested with next-generation sequencing and found that all tumors were mismatch repair (MMR) proficient, and three harbored a KRAS mutation. Germline testing showed no predisposition to CRC; however, several somatic variants of undetermined significance (VUS) were identified.

DISCUSSION: CRC in the peri-partum period poses significant risk factors for presentations with advanced disease due to diagnostic challenges. While our study provides no evidence that pathogenesis of CRC during pregnancy is driven by elevated estrogen and/or progesterone levels during pregnancy, additional putative etiologic factors, including placental growth factors, the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy, and other physiologic processes during pregnancy, warrant future study.