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Rossella Cannarella Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

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Andrea Crafa Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

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Sandro La Vignera Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

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Rosita A Condorelli Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

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Aldo E Calogero Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

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but also the development of a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition with oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, and acne ( 21 ). Sperm parameters and fertility No study to date has correlated GH and/or IGF1 levels with sperm parameters in

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M P Schuijt Department of Laboratory Medicine, Slingeland Hospital, Doetinchem, The Netherlands
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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C G J Sweep Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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R van der Steen Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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A J Olthaar Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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N M M L Stikkelbroeck Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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H A Ross Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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A E van Herwaarden Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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testosterone levels is important in the diagnosis of androgen deficiency in men ( 4 ) and androgen excess in women (i.e., polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism ( 5 , 6 )). During pregnancy increased maternal testosterone is associated with fetal growth

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Jennifer K Y Ko Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Jinghua Shi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China

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Raymond H W Li Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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William S B Yeung Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Ernest H Y Ng Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D between 50 and 75 nmol/L ( 28 ). For reproductive health, the cut-off may be different. Previous data from women with polycystic ovary syndrome have suggested that these women are more likely to be vitamin D deficient, and it is

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Chenyu Jiang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Mi Zhou Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Huai Bai Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Meng Chen Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Chunyi Yang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Kaifeng Hu Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Yujie Wu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Qingqing Liu Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Yangyu Zhao Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China

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Xinghui Liu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Ping Fan Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 16 ). NADPH oxidases (NOXs), found in virtually every cell type of the organism, can catalyze the production of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and downstream reactive oxygen species and serve important roles in

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Manjeetkaur Sehemby Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Prachi Bansal Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Vijaya Sarathi Department of Endocrinology, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

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Ashwini Kolhe Department of Pathology, Seth GS Medical college and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Kanchan Kothari Department of Pathology, Seth GS Medical college and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Swati Jadhav-Ramteke Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Anurag R Lila Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Tushar Bandgar Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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Nalini S Shah Department of Endocrinology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India

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virilizing tumours . Clinical Endocrinology 1994 41 571 – 576 . ( https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.1994.tb01820.x ) 14 Azziz R Nestler JE Dewally D . In Contemporary Endocrinology: Androgen Excess Disorders in Women: Polycystic Ovary

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Anette Lundqvist Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Herbert Sandström Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Torbjörn Bäckström Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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behaviour and allopregnanolone levels in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome . Gynecological Endocrinology 2015 31 301 – 305 . ( doi:10.3109/09513590.2014.994600 ) 24 Hedström H Bäckström T Bixo M Nyberg S Wang M

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Melinda Kertész Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Szilárd Kun Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Eszter Sélley Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Zsuzsanna Nagy Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Tamás Kőszegi Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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István Wittmann Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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subclinical hypothyroid ( 19 , 20 , 21 ), or in treated overt hypothyroid patients ( 22 , 23 ), in amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism ( 24 ), or in polycystic ovary syndrome women with subclinical hypothyroidism ( 25 ), or elsewhere, where the prevalence of

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Kirsten Davidse Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Anneloes van Staa Research Centre Innovations in Care, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Wanda Geilvoet Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Judith P van Eck Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Karlijn Pellikaan Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Janneke Baan Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Anita C S Hokken-Koelega Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Academic Centre for Growth, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Dutch Growth Research Foundation, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Erica L T van den Akker Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Theo Sas Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Diabeter, National Diabetes Care and Research Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Sabine E Hannema Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Aart Jan van der Lely Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Laura C G de Graaff Department of Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Academic Centre for Growth, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Multinodular goitre 2 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) 9 Central adrenal insufficiency 1 Follow-up after (chemo-)radiation 25 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) salt loosing type 9 Hemi- or total thyroidectomy 3 Sex chromosome

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Rosalie Cabry Amiens University, Amiens, Haut-de-France, France

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Philippe Merviel Brest University, Brest, Bretagne, France

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Aicha Madkour Mohammed V University of Rabat, Reproductive Medicine, Rabat, Morocco

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Elodie Lefranc Amiens University, Amiens, Haut-de-France, France

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Florence Scheffler Amiens University, Amiens, Haut-de-France, France

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Rachel Desailloud Amiens University, Amiens, Haut-de-France, France

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Véronique Bach Amiens University, Amiens, Haut-de-France, France

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Moncef Benkhalifa Amiens University, Amiens, Haut-de-France, France

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J Li TT Guo WQ Hu R , Environmental risk factors for women with polycystic ovary syndrome in china: a population-based case-control study . Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 2014 28 203 – 211 . 39 Yang Q Zhao

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Iben Katinka Greiber Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Casper P Hagen Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Alexander Siegfried Busch Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mikkel Grunnet Mieritz Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglæde Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Katharina Main Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Kristian Almstrup Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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androgen levels in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008 93 1310 – 1316 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-2205 ) 23 Kevenaar ME Themmen APN Laven JSE Sonntag B Fong SL Uitterlinden AG de Jong

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