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Anru Wang Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Xueqin Yan Department of Pediatrics, Boai Hospital of Zhongshan, Zhongshan, China

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Cai Zhang Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Caiqi Du Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Wenjun Long Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Di Zhan Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Xiaoping Luo Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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excluded. Five obese children and adolescents were excluded from the following study. These individuals included four patients treated with metformin and one child with less than 5% weight loss. Lifestyle intervention includes moderate caloric restriction

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V Guarnotta Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno – Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza ‘G. D’Alessandro’ (PROMISE), Sezione di Malattie Endocrine, del Ricambio e della Nutrizione, Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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C Di Stefano Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno – Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza ‘G. D’Alessandro’ (PROMISE), Sezione di Malattie Endocrine, del Ricambio e della Nutrizione, Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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A Santoro Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno – Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza ‘G. D’Alessandro’ (PROMISE), Sezione di Malattie Endocrine, del Ricambio e della Nutrizione, Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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A Ciresi Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno – Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza ‘G. D’Alessandro’ (PROMISE), Sezione di Malattie Endocrine, del Ricambio e della Nutrizione, Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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A Coppola Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno – Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza ‘G. D’Alessandro’ (PROMISE), Sezione di Malattie Endocrine, del Ricambio e della Nutrizione, Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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C Giordano Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno – Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza ‘G. D’Alessandro’ (PROMISE), Sezione di Malattie Endocrine, del Ricambio e della Nutrizione, Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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antidiabetic treatment was changed (in two patients liraglutide was added to metformin and in one patient sitagliptin was added to metformin). In group B no new cases of diabetes occurred and no change in antidiabetic treatment was observed. In patients with

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M Jensterle Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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A Podbregar University Rehabilitation Institute Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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K Goricar University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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N Gregoric Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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A Janez Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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not yet been addressed in a prospective clinical study. There was only one retrospective observational study reporting that adding long-acting GLP1 receptor agonist liraglutide to LSM, metformin and TRT boosted erectile function in obese men with type

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Karoline Winckler Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Lise Tarnow Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Louise Lundby-Christensen Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Thomas P Almdal Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Niels Wiinberg Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Pia Eiken Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Trine W Boesgaard Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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the CIMT trial group
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Insulin and Metformin Therapy (CIMT) trial) (26) . Materials and methods The CIMT trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomised controlled study with a 2×3 factorial design. The trial was initiated in May 2008 and completed in December 2012

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Michelle Hadjiconstantinou University of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Hamidreza Mani University of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Naina Patel University of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Miles Levy Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Melanie Davies University of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Kamlesh Khunti University of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Margaret Stone University of Leicester, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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shaving and laser treatment, some participants described pharmacological therapy including the contraceptive pill, spironolactone and metformin, although there was some variation in terms of the perceived effectiveness of these medicines: ‘I’ve gone on

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Wenrui Wang Department of Endocrinology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China

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Chuan Zhang Department of Endocrinology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China

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antidiabetic drugs include metformin, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is); which may enhance

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David Koeckerling Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Jeremy W Tomlinson Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Jeremy F Cobbold Oxford Liver Unit, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK

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biguanide metformin is the first-line pharmacological agent for T2DM therapy and displays favourable effects on total body fat and insulin sensitivity. In a meta-analysis of 671 patients with NAFLD and T2DM, metformin failed to impact liver histology

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Stavroula A Paschou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Eleni Palioura Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Dimitrios Ioannidis Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sismanoglio-Amalia Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Argyro Panagiotakou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sismanoglio-Amalia Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Vasiliki Loi Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Georgios Karageorgos Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sismanoglio-Amalia Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Dimitrios G Goulis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Andromachi Vryonidou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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menstrual irregularities and no clinical evidence of hyperandrogenism. Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and any other medical or psychiatric illness were excluded both in patients and controls. The use of oral contraceptives, anti-androgens or metformin

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David S Mathiesen Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Jonatan I Bagger Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Gentofte and Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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Katrine B Hansen Department of Medicine, Gentofte and Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders E Junker Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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Astrid Plamboeck Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Signe Harring Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, Denmark

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Thomas Idorn Center for Cancer and Organ Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mads Hornum Department of Medicine, Gentofte and Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Center for Cancer and Organ Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jens J Holst Novartis Healthcare A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anna E Jonsson Novartis Healthcare A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Torben Hansen Novartis Healthcare A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Tina Vilsbøll Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Novartis Healthcare A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Nephrology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Asger Lund Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Filip K Knop Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Gentofte and Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Novartis Healthcare A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Nephrology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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and metformin: the study to understand the genetics of the acute response to metformin and glipizide in humans (SUGAR-MGH) . Diabetes Care 2018 41 554 – 561 . ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-1386 ) 23 Heni M Ketterer C Thamer C Herzberg

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Hui-qing Yuan Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jia-xi Miao Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jia-ping Xu Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Su-xiang Zhu Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Feng Xu Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xiao-hua Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Chun-hua Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Chao Yu Department of Clinical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xue-qin Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jian-bin Su Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Dong-mei Zhang Medical Research Center, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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-lowering therapies were acquired by searching the electronic medical record system and then were categorized into subclasses, which included insulin injections, sulfonylureas (SUs), metformin, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), dipeptidyl

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