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Giorgio Bedogni, Andrea Mari, Alessandra De Col, Sofia Tamini, Amalia Gastaldelli and Alessandro Sartorio

Introduction The prevalence of childhood type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide ( 1 ). T2DM is characterized by visceral obesity, insulin resistance and defective β-cell function. In children and adolescents, glucose

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Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Natalia Matulewicz, Irina Kowalska and Marek Strączkowski

observed in different populations ( 8 , 11 , 13 ). Systemic chemerin levels were also found to be associated with markers of fatty liver disease ( 12 ). The main pathophysiological factor of obesity-related metabolic complications is insulin resistance

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P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, N Kleefstra, H J G Bilo and H J Arnqvist

-dependent diabetic patients compared to that in healthy subjects . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1995 80 2646 – 2652 . ( doi:10.1210/jc.80.9.2646 ). 27 Brismar K & Lewitt MS. The IGF and IGFBP system in insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. In

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Antonia Ertelt, Ann-Kristin Barton, Robert R Schmitz and Heidrun Gehlen

Federation (IDF), the waist circumference has to be measured at ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men ( http://www.idf.org , 09/08/2011). Mesenteric and omental fat is of greater importance in the development of insulin resistance, because their fatty acids and

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Xuhua Mao, Hucheng Chen, Junmin Tang, Liangliang Wang and Tingting Shu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes arises when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin to cope with the metabolic demand because of acquired insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction ( 1 ). Inhibition of insulin synthesis plays an

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Kaisa K Ivaska, Maikki K Heliövaara, Pertti Ebeling, Marco Bucci, Ville Huovinen, H Kalervo Väänänen, Pirjo Nuutila and Heikki A Koistinen

between total OC and insulin resistance which appeared to be mediated by BMI (45) . Based on these findings, the proposed link between insulin sensitivity and bone metabolism remains uncertain in humans and further studies are required. The strengths of

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M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra and H J G Bilo

CIPII and the subsequent increased hepatic insulinization may cause a more pronounced suppression of SHBG production. Apart from portal insulin concentrations, other factors such as glycemic control, insulin dose, insulin resistance, and the presence of

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Lisa Arnetz, Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Kerstin Brismar and Michael Alvarsson

Introduction Along with progressive β-cell failure and insulin resistance, patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) display disturbed regulation of cortisol and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) secretion (1) . Especially regarding the hypothalamus

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Alice S Ryan, John C McLenithan and Gretchen M Zietowski

, women with prior GDM are at a heightened risk for subsequent CVD complications. Aging is also associated with increased obesity, insulin resistance, and CVD risk (11, 12, 13) . Thus, as women age with a history of GDM, they may be faced with a worsening

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Wenqi Yang, Ling Liu, Yuan Wei, Chunlu Fang, Fu Zhou, Jinbao Chen, Qinghua Han, Meifang Huang, Xuan Tan, Qiuyue Liu, Qiang Pan, Lu Zhang, Xiaojuan Lei and Liangming Li

insulin resistance and show more disorganized liver lipid metabolism compared to their WT littermate controls ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). On the other hand, replenishment of FGF21 can reduce obesity, improve insulin sensitivity and increase glucose clearance ( 5 , 6