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Ja Hye Kim Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Yunha Choi Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Soojin Hwang Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Gu-Hwan Kim Medical Genetics Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Han-Wook Yoo Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Jin-Ho Choi Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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-associated feeding difficulties, cardiac anomalies, and deficiencies in growth hormone (GH) or combined pituitary hormone ( 8 , 13 ). GH deficiency occurred at a frequency of 10–34% ( 11 , 14 , 15 , 16 ), and previous studies reported structural abnormalities of

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T L C Wolters Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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C D C C van der Heijden Division of Experimental Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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N van Leeuwen Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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B T P Hijmans-Kersten Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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M G Netea Division of Experimental Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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J W A Smit Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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D H J Thijssen Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

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A R M M Hermus Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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N P Riksen Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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R T Netea-Maier Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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Introduction Acromegaly is caused by overproduction of growth hormone (GH), in most cases by a pituitary adenoma. GH in turn induces production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) ( 1 ). Both GH and IGF1 have numerous metabolic and trophic

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Ana Podbregar Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
University Rehabilitation Institute Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Tomaž Kocjan Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Matej Rakuša Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Peter Popović Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Clinical Institute of Radiology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Manca Garbajs Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Clinical Institute of Radiology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Katja Goricar Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Andrej Janez Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Mojca Jensterle Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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MACE, particularly demonstrated in overweight and obese subjects. However, the magnitudes of observed progressions in growth or hormonal activity were clinically insignificant. Our long-term follow-up, therefore, clearly supports the general view that

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Ivar Følling Department of Endocrinology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

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Anna B Wennerstrøm Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

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Tor J Eide Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

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Hilde Loge Nilsen Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway

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Introduction Phaeochromocytomas are tumours originating in the medulla of the adrenal gland. As the normal adrenal medulla, phaeochromocytomas mainly produce catecholamines but a few also produce ectopic hormones. Clinically, the most

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J Chycki Department of Sports Training, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland

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A Zajac Department of Sports Training, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland

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M Michalczyk Department of Sports Nutrition, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland

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A Maszczyk Department of Methodology and Statistics, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland

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J Langfort Department of Sports Nutrition, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland

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structure of study protocol. At each of the five time points (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4), venous blood samples were collected to determine growth hormone (GH) – t0, t3, t4 noradrenaline (NA) – t0, t3, insulin (I) – t0, t3, t4 cortisol (C) – t0, t3

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Nadia Sabbah Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Hôpital de Cayenne, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies Métaboliques, Cayenne, Guyane Française

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Peter Wolf Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Céline Piedvache Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Séverine Trabado Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service de Génétique Moléculaire, Pharmacogénétique et Hormonologie, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Tristan Verdelet Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Catherine Cornu Centre d’Investigation Clinique, INSERM CIC1407/UMR5558, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France

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Jean-Claude Souberbielle Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Necker, Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles, Paris, France

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Philippe Chanson Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Introduction IGF-1 measurement is important for the diagnosis and management of patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency or acromegaly as well as in their follow-up ( 1 , 2 ). We previously established normative data for six IGF-I assays

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Jordyn Silverstein Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Wesley Kidder Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Susan Fisher Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Thomas A Hope Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Samantha Maisel Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Dianna Ng Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Jessica Van Ziffle Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Chloe E Atreya Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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Katherine Van Loon Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA

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with pregnancy have been the subject of extensive speculation, including the overexpression of pregnancy-related growth factors and human placental growth hormones and the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy. Other cancers have been shown to be

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Silvia Ciancia Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Vanessa Dubois Basic and Translational Endocrinology (BaTE), Department of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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Martine Cools Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Pediatric Endocrinology Service, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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childhood, followed by a sharp acceleration from the onset of puberty onward, up to early adulthood. During puberty, the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and sex steroids become the main determinants of bone development, acting on

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D A Dart Cardiff China Medical Research Collaborative, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, Wales, UK
Imperial College London, London, UK

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K Ashelford Division of Cancer and Genetics, Wales Gene Park, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK

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W G Jiang Cardiff China Medical Research Collaborative, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, Wales, UK

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a reduction in tumour cell growth. Often patients undergoing AR-antagonist therapy can become resistant to bicalutamide via many pathways – involving AR amplification, AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) mutations, cofactor/coregulator changes, and

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Yiyan Wang Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Yaoyao Dong Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Yinghui Fang Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Yao Lv Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Qiqi Zhu Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Xiaoheng Li Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Qingquan Lian Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Ren-Shan Ge Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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DES induced an intrauterine growth restriction of pups in the placentas ( 6 ). However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Figure 1 Chemical structure of cortisol and diethylstilbestrol. Glucocorticoid hormone is an inducing

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