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Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Hiten D Mistry, Chandrima Roy, Bernhard Dick, Jason Waugh, Rebecca Chikhi, Lesia O Kurlak and Markus G Mohaupt

Introduction The fetal adrenal gland and hypothalamic–pituitary axis (HPA) play important roles during pregnancy. Between weeks 32 and 34 of gestation, there is a rapid maturation of the fetal adrenal cortex, allowing development of a variety of

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Elizabeth Yan Zhang and Bao-Ting Zhu

estrogens, such as those observed during human pregnancy, are immunosuppressive (1) . For example, 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) and estriol (E 3 ) at suitable doses can inhibit the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) (2, 3, 4) and

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Urszula Smyczyńska, Joanna Smyczyńska, Maciej Hilczer, Renata Stawerska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz and Andrzej Lewiński

defined by Ranke as a new paradigm for GH treatment in 21st century ( 3 ). Moreover, the use of growth prediction models has been proposed as a personalized approach to GH treatment in clinical practice ( 4 ). Development of such models should allow to

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Corina Verónica Sasso, Flavia Eliana Santiano, Fiorella Campo Verde Arboccó, Leila Ester Zyla, Silvana Noemí Semino, Martin Eduardo Guerrero-Gimenez, Virginia Pistone Creydt, Constanza Matilde López Fontana and Rubén Walter Carón

40%, respectively, higher in men than in women ( 1 ). Since the Women’s Health Initiative in 1991 ( 2 ), and several epidemiological studies, the ovarian steroids were considered protectors against the development of CRC. Different studies in animal

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Leanne Hodson and Fredrik Karpe

tissue) and how dysregulation of these processes may play a role in the development of insulin resistance and/or IHTAG accumulation in humans. Although there are new therapies in the pipeline for the treatment of NAFLD/insulin resistance, there are many

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T L C Wolters, C D C C van der Heijden, N van Leeuwen, B T P Hijmans-Kersten, M G Netea, J W A Smit, D H J Thijssen, A R M M Hermus, N P Riksen and R T Netea-Maier

, which promotes a pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic environment. Although the importance of innate immune cells in the development and progression of atherosclerosis is widely accepted, the unresolving character of the low-grade inflammation that

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A V Dreval, I V Trigolosova, I V Misnikova, Y A Kovalyova, R S Tishenina, I A Barsukov, A V Vinogradova and B H R Wolffenbuttel

ECMDs to be higher than that of overt diabetes (2, 5, 6, 7) , not all studies report the same prevalence (3, 8) . The development of ECMDs and/or progression to diabetes in patients with acromegaly may depend on several factors, such as age and gender

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Catarina I Gonçalves, José M Aragüés, Margarida Bastos, Luísa Barros, Nuno Vicente, Davide Carvalho and Manuel C Lemos

Introduction Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterised by partial or complete lack of pubertal development, secondary to deficient gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin secretion ( 1 ). Diagnosis is

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Iben Katinka Greiber, Casper P Hagen, Alexander Siegfried Busch, Mikkel Grunnet Mieritz, Lise Aksglæde, Katharina Main, Kristian Almstrup and Anders Juul

assess the effect of genetic variation of AMH signaling ( AMH rs10407022 T>G and AMHR2 rs11170547 C>T) on circulating hormone levels in boys and girls during pubertal development. Our findings support recent GWAS results in young adults and expand

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Kristin Ottarsdottir, Margareta Hellgren, David Bock, Anna G Nilsson and Bledar Daka

-sectional studies have found an inverse association between levels of SHBG and insulin resistance in men ( 9 , 10 ) and women ( 11 , 12 ). Only few studies have investigated whether levels of SHBG can predict the development of insulin resistance, and there are no