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Zheng Chen Z Chen, Nanchang, China

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Haixia Zeng H Zeng, Nanchang, China

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Qiulan Huang Q Huang, Nanchang, China

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Cuiping Lin C Lin, Nanchang, China

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Xuan Li X Li, Nanchang, China

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Shaohua Sun S Sun, Nanchang, China

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Jian-ping Liu J Liu, Nanchang, 330006, China

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To investigate the changes in serum glypican-4 (GPC4) and clusterin (CLU) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as their correlation with sex hormones and metabolic parameters. A total of 40 PCOS patients and 40 age-matched healthy women were selected. Serum GPC4 and CLU levels were compared between the PCOS and control groups, and binary logistic regression was used to analyze the relative risk of PCOS at different tertiles of serum GPC4 and CLU concentrations. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify the factors influencing serum GPC4 and CLU levels in PCOS patients. Serum GPC4 (1.82 ± 0.49 vs. 1.30 ± 0.61 ng/mL, P < 0.001) and CLU (468.79 ± 92.85 vs. 228.59 ± 82.42 µg/mL, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in healthy women after adjustment for BMI. In the PCOS group, serum GPC4 was positively correlated with follicle-stimulating hormone, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, and CLU (P < 0.05), whereas serum CLU was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), FPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR was independently associated with serum GPC4, and BMI and HOMA-IR were independently associated with CLU (P < 0.05). Serum GPC4 and CLU levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in healthy women, suggesting that GPC4 and CLU may be markers associated with insulin resistance in women with PCOS.

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Liza Haqq School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia

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James McFarlane School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia

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Gudrun Dieberg School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia

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Neil Smart School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia

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agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector. References 1 March WA Moore VM Willson KJ Phillips DI Norman RJ Davies MJ . The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample assessed under contrasting diagnostic

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Mojca Jensterle Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Nika Aleksandra Kravos Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Simona Ferjan Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Katja Goricar University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Vita Dolzan University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Andrej Janez Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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polycystic ovary syndrome . Diabetes Care 2019 560 – 567 . ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-1738 ) 3 Velazquez EM Mendoza S Hamer T Sosa F Glueck CJ . Metformin therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome reduces hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance

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Gunjan Garg Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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Garima Kachhawa Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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Rekha Ramot Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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Rajesh Khadgawat Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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Nikhil Tandon Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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V Sreenivas Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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Alka Kriplani Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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N Gupta Departments of Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Biostatics

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sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men . Diabetic Medicine 2009 26 19 – 27 . ( doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02636.x ). 9 Diamanti-Kandarakis E Dunaif A . Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome revisited

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Thomas Reinehr Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Alexandra Kulle Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Schleswig – Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel/Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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Juliane Rothermel Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Caroline Knop-Schmenn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Nina Lass Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Christina Bosse Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Paul-Martin Holterhus Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Schleswig – Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel/Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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. References 1 Franks S. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents . International Journal of Obesity 2008 32 1035 – 1041 . ( doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.61 ) 2 Ehrmann DA. Polycystic ovary syndrome . New England Journal of Medicine 2005 352

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Yael Sofer Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Nava Nevo Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

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Michal Vechoropoulos Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Gabi Shefer Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Etty Osher Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Nathan Landis Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Karen Tordjman
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Geoffrey L Hammond Departments of Cellular & Physiological Sciences and Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Naftali Stern Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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levels and HbA1c ( 11 , 13 ). Hypoandrogenism in men and hyperandrogenism in women (e.g., the polycystic ovary syndrome) have been linked to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome ( 13 , 14 ). In one report, SHBG levels predicted the development

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Line K Johnson Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Kirsten B Holven Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Njord Nordstrand Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Jan R Mellembakken Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Tom Tanbo Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Jøran Hjelmesæth Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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assessment; and Matthew McGee for proofreading the manuscript. References 1 Carmina E Bucchieri S Esposito A Del Puente A Mansueto P Orio F Di Fede G Rini G . Abdominal fat quantity and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and

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Alessandra Gambineri Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Carla Pelusi Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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) and becomes particularly evident in hyperandrogenic disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is the most common hyperandrogenic disorder in women with a prevalence in European women in the fertile age of around 6–8% ( 11

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Maki Igarashi Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Tadayuki Ayabe Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Keiko Matsubara Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Hatoko Sasaki Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Mayako Saito-Abe Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Miori Sato Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Nathan Mise Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Akihiko Ikegami Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Masayuki Shimono Regional Center for Pilot Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan

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Reiko Suga Regional Center for Pilot Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan

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Shouichi Ohga Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan
Research Center for Environment and Developmental Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan

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Masafumi Sanefuji Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan
Research Center for Environment and Developmental Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan

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Masako Oda Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, Japan

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Hiroshi Mitsubuchi Department of Neonatology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, Japan

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Takehiro Michikawa Japan Environment and Children’s Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Shin Yamazaki Japan Environment and Children’s Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Shoji Nakayama Japan Environment and Children’s Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Yukihiro Ohya Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Maki Fukami Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome . Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2016 158 31 – 37 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.02.010 ) 8 Miller WL Auchus RJ . The molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology

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Xingrong Tan Department of Endocrinology, 9th People’s Hospital of Chongqing, Beibei City, Chongqong, China

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Wenjing Hu Chongqing Prevention and Treatment Hospital for Occupational Diseases, Chongqing, China

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Shan Yang Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Han Dai Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Shangcheng Xu Chongqing Prevention and Treatment Hospital for Occupational Diseases, Chongqing, China

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Gangyi Yang Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Ling Li Department of Endocrinology, 9th People’s Hospital of Chongqing, Beibei City, Chongqong, China

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Shiguo Tang Department of Endocrinology, 9th People’s Hospital of Chongqing, Beibei City, Chongqong, China

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Yi Wang Department of Endocrinology, 9th People’s Hospital of Chongqing, Beibei City, Chongqong, China

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found in younger women, especially those who are obese or have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 9 ). In addition, there is a physiological decrease of insulin sensitivity in healthy adolescents, reaching the lowest point in mid-to-late adolescence, and

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