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Henrik H Thomsen Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Holger J Møller Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Christian Trolle Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Kristian A Groth Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Anne Skakkebæk Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Anders Bojesen Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Christian Høst Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Claus H Gravholt Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Medical Research Laboratories, Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Genetics, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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our findings in a hypogonadal model (45) . The CD163 expression correlated to unfavorable metabolic features (e.g. increase in visceral fat). In the other study arm, metformin and flutamide treatment induced a more metabolically favorable profile

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Hélène Lasolle Fédération d’Endocrinologie, Centre de Référence Maladies Rares Hypophysaires HYPO, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France
Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France
INSERM U1052; CNRS UMR5286; Cancer Research Centre of Lyon, Lyon, France

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Amandine Ferriere Service d’endocrinologie, diabète et nutrition, Hôpital Haut Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
UFR Sciences médicales, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

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Alexandre Vasiljevic Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France
INSERM U1052; CNRS UMR5286; Cancer Research Centre of Lyon, Lyon, France
Centre de Pathologie et de Neuropathologie Est, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France

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Sandrine Eimer UFR Sciences médicales, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
Service d’anatomo-pathologie, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

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Marie-Laure Nunes Service d’endocrinologie, diabète et nutrition, Hôpital Haut Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

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Antoine Tabarin Service d’endocrinologie, diabète et nutrition, Hôpital Haut Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
UFR Sciences médicales, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

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had pre-diabetes and five patients were diabetic (see Table 2 ). Among five diabetic patients, two were treated with insulin ( n , 9 and 14, Table 1 ), one with metformin ( n , 10, Table 1 ) and one with a ddp4-inhibitor associated with metformin

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Dorte Glintborg Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Katrine Hass Rubin OPEN – Odense Patient data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Mads Nybo Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Bo Abrahamsen OPEN – Odense Patient data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Holbæk Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark

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Marianne Andersen Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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2, prescription of drugs for treatment of diabetes excluding prescription of metformin (A10 excluding A10BA02); or 3, the occurrence of HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol and/or BG ≥11.1 mmol/L ( 16 ). CVD was defined as at least one of two criteria: 1, an ICD

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Iben Rix Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Zealand Pharma A/S, Søborg, Denmark

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Marie L Johansen Department of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Asger Lund Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Malte P Suppli Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Elizaveta Chabanova Department of Radiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Gerrit van Hall Clinical Metabolomics Core Facility, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jens J Holst Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Caroline Kistorp Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Filip K Knop Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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been investigated in healthy and individuals with prediabetes ( 16 ), in individuals with severe obesity ( 17 ), in a small group of individuals with T2D ( 18 ), and in diet and/or metformin-treated individuals with T2D ( 19 ). To our knowledge

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Xia Wu Department of Endocrinology, Jing’an District Centre Hospital of Shanghai (Huashan Hospital Fudan University Jing’an Branch), Shanghai, China

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Zhiling Li Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Wenjiang Sun Department of Rehabilitation, Shanghai General Hospital, Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

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Huan Zheng Department of Cardiology, Worldpath Clinic International, Shanghai, China

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< 0.05), while there were no significant differences in the ratio of exercise, the ratio of taking metformin, the ratio of dyslipidemia, SBP, DBP, AST, ALT, FBG, IN, HOMA-IR, TC, HDL-C, Cr, UA, FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH, and TT between the two groups. Table

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Yael Sofer Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Nava Nevo Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

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Michal Vechoropoulos Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Gabi Shefer Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Etty Osher Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Nathan Landis Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Karen Tordjman
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Geoffrey L Hammond Departments of Cellular & Physiological Sciences and Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Naftali Stern Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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lifestyle changes caused a parallel regression of fatty liver and increase in plasma levels of SHBG ( 23 ). A few studies have suggested that elevated insulin levels suppress SHBG production ( 24 , 25 ), and insulin-sensitizing drugs, such as metformin and

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Zhiwei Zhang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, China

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Hui Zhao Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, China

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Aixia Wang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, China

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to the WT group, oleuropein exerted a dose-dependent effect in restoring the hepatic glycogen levels ( Fig. 2E , P < 0.05 for low-dose oleuropein and P < 0.01 for high-dose oleuropein). Next, we compared the efficacy of oleuropein to metformin

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Rachel Forfar Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Mashal Hussain Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Puneet Khurana Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Jennifer Cook Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Steve Lewis Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Dillon Popat Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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David Jackson Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Ed McIver Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Jeff Jerman Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Debra Taylor Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Adrian JL Clark Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Li F Chan Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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). Specific advantages of a small molecule over a peptide antagonist include improved bioavailability and the option of oral administration. Metformin at a concentration of 10 mM has been recently shown to inhibit the activation of an MC2–MRAP complex by ACTH

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Dmitry M Davydov Laboratory of Neuroimmunopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia

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Malik K Nurbekov Laboratory of Sociogenomics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

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register, 50% were identified as missing medication in the previous week. The recommended treatment modalities in the selected sample were metformin alone (20%); metformin in combination with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (5%); glucagon-like peptide 1

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Julia Otten Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Andreas Stomby Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden

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Maria Waling Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Elin Chorell Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Mats Ryberg Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Michael Svensson Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section for Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden

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Jens Juul Holst NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Tommy Olsson Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden) between 2012 and 2014. Study patients were 30–75 years of age, and women had to be postmenopausal. Exclusion criteria were treatment with glucose-lowering drugs other than metformin and severe illness. The primary

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