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Ulla Schmidt, Birte Nygaard, Ebbe Winther Jensen, Jan Kvetny, Anne Jarløv and Jens Faber

, and pro-collagen-1-N-terminal peptide (PINP) representing collagen production during bone formation. Materials and methods Subjects This study has been described in detail previously (7) . Briefly, the design was a double-blind, randomized, crossover

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Malachi J McKenna and Barbara F Murray

evidence of benefit plateaus at 30–40 nmol/l (12–16 ng/ml) and covers the majority at 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). CPG claims a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) threshold of 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml) as necessary for bone health. Conceptually, IOM deems a 25OHD

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Luminita Nicoleta Cima, Anca Colita and Simona Fica

. Initially, there is an increase of FSH and LH secretion (so-called ‘flare effect’) that lasts for 2–3 weeks, followed by the hypogonadotropic state. GnRHa carries a known risk of hypoestrogenism-associated decreased bone mineral density ( 5 ). Therefore, its

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Jennifer K Y Ko, Thomas F J King, Louise Williams, Sarah M Creighton and Gerard S Conway

after completion of puberty ( 2 ). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is required after gonadectomy in order to maintain secondary sexual characteristics, bone and cardiovascular health and to promote general wellbeing and sexual function. In the study by

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Ravikumar Shah, Anurag R Lila, Ramteke-Swati Jadhav, Virendra Patil, Abhishek Mahajan, Sushil Sonawane, Puja Thadani, Anil Dcruz, Prathamesh Pai, Munita Bal, Subhada Kane, Nalini Shah and Tushar Bandgar

the mainstay of treatment and is known to result in dramatic resolution of symptoms. The first case of TIO was reported by Robert McCance in 1947 who treated a patient having low phosphorus levels and bone pain with high doses of vitamin D suspecting

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Jin Kyu Oh, Young Jae Im, Kwanjin Park and Jae-Seung Paick

of testicular germ cells and bone may warrant safety concerns, and these remain insufficiently characterised. GH deficiency is the primary cause of micropenis, even in the presence of intact hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis ( 9 ). Although the

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Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

athletes than in the general population ( 15 ). Low energy availability, amenorrhea and estrogen deficiency are associated with rapid loss of bone mass and an elevated risk for musculoskeletal injuries ( Fig. 1 ). Since physical activity usually promotes

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Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Peter E Clayton, Catherine S Choong, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John J Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irene Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Solberg, Christian Strasburger, Peter Trainer, Kevin C J Yuen, Kerstin Wickstrom, Jens O L Jorgensen and on behalf of the Growth Hormone Research Society

correlated with growth rates in subsequent years and adult height. Prediction models using auxology, bone age and other variables have been advocated as tools for individual patient management ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). Measurement of body proportions can be helpful

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Werner F Blum, Abdullah Alherbish, Afaf Alsagheir, Ahmed El Awwa, Walid Kaplan, Ekaterina Koledova and Martin O Savage

tissue, where it controls the release of fatty acids ( 8 ). There is also a direct effect on cartilage cells in the growth plates of the long bones, which also secrete IGF-I to act locally ( 9 ). Components of the IGF system There are numerous

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A Chinoy, M Skae, A Babiker, D Kendall, M Z Mughal and R Padidela

absorption of oral calcium (Ca) from the intestine. PTH also mobilises Ca from the bone (by increasing the number and activity of osteoclasts to encourage bone resorption) to maintain serum Ca concentration. PTH also regulates serum phosphate. HPT is