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Magnus F G Grøndahl Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Jonatan I Bagger Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Malte P Suppli Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Gerrit Van Hall Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Clinical Metabolomics Core Facility, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Nicolai J W Albrechtsen Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Copenhagen, Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jens J Holst Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Tina Vilsbøll Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Mikkel B Christensen Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Copenhagen University Hospital – Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen Center for Translational Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Asger B Lund Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Filip K Knop Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Clinical Research, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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and in response to a 1-h intravenous glucagon infusion. Materials and methods Study design and participants Plasma samples from a study including 16 individuals with diet and/or metformin-treated type 2 diabetes (type 2 diabetes group) and

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E T Aristizabal Prada Department of Internal Medicine IV, Campus Grosshadern, University-Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany

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C J Auernhammer Department of Internal Medicine IV, Campus Grosshadern, University-Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany

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). Other mTOR inhibitors: aspirin and metformin AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved key regulator implicated in cellular homeostasis, cell growth and cytoskeletal and cell death mechanisms ( 88 ). AMPK activation causes

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Espen Nordheim Department of Transplantation Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

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Trond Geir Jenssen Department of Transplantation Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Metabolic and Renal Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT- The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø

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necessitate dose-lowering or cessation of drugs such as insulin or sulfonylureas. The increased risk for metformin-related lactacidosis must also been taken into consideration when renal function is impaired ( 23 ). Regulation of blood pressure and

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Christine Rode Andreasen Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark
Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Andreas Andersen Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark
Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Filip Krag Knop Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark
Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Tina Vilsbøll Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark
Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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. Effect of oral semaglutide on the pharmacokinetics of lisinopril, warfarin, digoxin, and metformin in healthy subjects . Clinical Pharmacokinetics 2019 58 1193 – 1203 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-019-00756-2 ) 15 Kristensen SL Rørth R

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Christian Trummer Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Stefan Pilz Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Verena Schwetz Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Elisabeth Lerchbaum Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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citrate and metformin (to predict live birth) Positive association with fasting glucose-insulin ratio Joham et al . ( 48 ) 42 PCOS women 28.6 ± 5.0 Association with IR Body fat percentage Mishra et al . ( 46 ) 44 PCOS

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Agnieszka Adamska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Aleksandra Maria Polak Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Anna Krentowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Agnieszka Łebkowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Justyna Hryniewicka Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Monika Leśniewska Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Irina Kowalska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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has been shown that administration of metformin could improve IR as well as NAFLD in PCOS women ( 27 ). However, there are no data evaluating the impact of metformin, as well as diet or physical exercise, on serum level of fetuin-B in PCOS women

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Xiaolei Hu Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, Anhui, China
Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Fengling Chen Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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disappearance of IAs can require more than 1 or 2 years ( 72 ). It has been reported that metformin combined with an α-glucosidase inhibitor can significantly lower plasma IA concentrations. In addition, a combination of liraglutide and sulfonylurea has been

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Agnieszka Adamska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Paulina Tomczuk-Bobik Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Anna Beata Popławska-Kita Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Katarzyna Siewko Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Angelika Buczyńska Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland

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Piotr Szumowski Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Łukasz Żukowski Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Janusz Myśliwiec Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Monika Zbucka-Krętowska Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Adolescent Gynecology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland

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Marcin Adamski Faculty of Computer Science, Bialystok University of Technology, Białystok, Poland

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Adam Jacek Krętowski Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland

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, which would explain why decreased serum levels of AMH could be observed. However, further research is needed to clarify the exact pathogenetic mechanisms of this approach. Animal studies have shown that metformin might protect against the adverse effects

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A J Varewijck Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Room D-443, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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A J van der Lely Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Room D-443, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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S J C M M Neggers Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Room D-443, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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S W J Lamberts Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Room D-443, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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L J Hofland Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Room D-443, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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J A M J L Janssen Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Room D-443, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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.). Results Clinical characteristics of study population Table 1 lists the clinical characteristics of the study population. Three patients received metformin therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two of these three patients were treated with insulin and six

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S Westra Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Alkmaar, the Netherlands

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Y H M Krul-Poel Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Alkmaar, the Netherlands

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H J van Wijland Department of General Practice, DIAZON, Alkmaar, the Netherlands

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M M ter Wee Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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F Stam Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Alkmaar, the Netherlands

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P Lips Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine Section, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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F Pouwer Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands

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S Simsek Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Alkmaar, the Netherlands

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trial was conducted in five general practices in and around the city of Alkmaar, the Netherlands, latitude 52°, between July 2012 and April 2013. Adult persons (≥18 years) with type 2 DM treated with lifestyle advice, metformin, and/or sulfonylurea

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