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Laura Chioma Endocrinology Unit, University Pediatric Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy

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Carla Bizzarri Endocrinology Unit, University Pediatric Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy

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Martina Verzani Endocrinology Unit, University Pediatric Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy

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Daniela Fava Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Genova, Italy

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Mariacarolina Salerno Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy

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Donatella Capalbo Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Mother and Child, University Hospital Federico II, Naples, Italy

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Chiara Guzzetti Paediatric Endocrine Unit, Paediatric Hospital Microcitemico ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Laura Penta Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

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Luigi Di Luigi Endocrinology Unit, Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome ‘Foro Italico’, Rome, Italy

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Natascia di Iorgi Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Genova, Italy

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Mohamad Maghnie Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Genova, Italy

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Sandro Loche Paediatric Endocrine Unit, Paediatric Hospital Microcitemico ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Marco Cappa Endocrinology Unit, University Pediatric Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy

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workup were defined as affected by TT. Peripheral precocious puberty due to non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia was excluded with basal and corticotropin-stimulated 17-OH-progesterone in patients presenting with pubarche and/or adrenarche in

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Juan Carlos Juárez-Cruz Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Miriam Daniela Zuñiga-Eulogio Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Monserrat Olea-Flores Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Eduardo Castañeda-Saucedo Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Miguel Ángel Mendoza-Catalán Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Carlos Ortuño-Pineda Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Ma Elena Moreno-Godínez Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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Sócrates Villegas-Comonfort Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, México

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Teresita Padilla-Benavides Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

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Napoleón Navarro-Tito Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Guerrero, México

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levels of estrogens, which in turn reduce gonadotrophin release, and decreased progesterone levels, thus reducing cell proliferation in mammary glands ( 14 ). Contradictory studies in this regard have proposed that progesterone may be protective against

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Line K Johnson Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Kirsten B Holven Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Njord Nordstrand Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Jan R Mellembakken Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Tom Tanbo Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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Jøran Hjelmesæth Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
Morbid Obesity Centre, Department of Nutrition, Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Endocrinology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, PO Box 2168, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway

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). Prolactin, sexual hormone binding globuline (SHBG), estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T 4 ) were analysed with quantitative

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Henryk F Urbanski Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Kevin Mueller Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

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Cynthia L Bethea Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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– 867 . ( doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.09.006 ) 4 Voytko ML Higgs CJ Murray R . Differential effects on visual and spatial recognition memory of a novel hormone therapy regimen of estrogen alone or combined with progesterone in older

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Muriel Houang Laboratoire des Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Thao Nguyen-Khoa Centre Régional de Dépistage Néonatal-Ile de France, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP Centre Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Thibaut Eguether Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Département de Métabolomique Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Bettina Ribault Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Département de Métabolomique Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Séverine Brabant Laboratoire d’Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP Centre Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Michel Polak Centre Régional de Dépistage Néonatal-Ile de France, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP Centre Université de Paris, Paris, France
Université de Paris, INSERM, Institut IMAGINE, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France

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Irène Netchine Laboratoire des Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Antonin Lamazière Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Département de Métabolomique Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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critical for boys and girls whose signs of virilization at birth are mild, or that may be missed. The conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) to 11-deoxycortisol and of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone, which are precursors of cortisol and

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Leqi He Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xiaoying Li Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Zaoping Chen Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Wei Wang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Kai Wang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xinmei Huang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Qian Yang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Wencai Ke Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bingbing Zha Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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medicine, nutrient supplement, glucocorticoids, dopamine, antiepileptic drugs, and progesterone). Patients who did not comply with the test procedures were also excluded. All participants signed informed consent forms, and the study was approved by the

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Nathalie Ly Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Reference Center for Rare Endocrine Diseases of Growth and Development, Reference Center for Gynecological Rare Diseases, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Paris, France
EndoERN, APHP Consortium Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Necker Hospital, Paris, France

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Sophie Dubreuil Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Reference Center for Rare Endocrine Diseases of Growth and Development, Reference Center for Gynecological Rare Diseases, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Paris, France
EndoERN, APHP Consortium Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Necker Hospital, Paris, France

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Philippe Touraine Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Reference Center for Rare Endocrine Diseases of Growth and Development, Reference Center for Gynecological Rare Diseases, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Paris, France
EndoERN, APHP Consortium Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Necker Hospital, Paris, France
Sorbonne University, Paris, France

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growth, ovarian steroidogenesis, ovulation and oocyte quality). GH and its receptor have been detected at each step of ovarian folliculogenesis ( 4 ). In vitro , GH stimulates estradiol production by follicles ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 ) and progesterone

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Emma Jernberg Department of Medical biosciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Anders Bergh Department of Medical biosciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Pernilla Wikström Department of Medical biosciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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, progesterone, oestrogen and glucocorticoids as well as in turning antagonists into agonists, as recently reviewed in ( 31 ) and summarized in this article in Table 1 . The first and most frequently identified AR point mutation is the flutamide-driven T878A

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Cinthia Marenza Ormond Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Nayara de Souza Santos Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Camila Regis Banhara Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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, but the 17, 20 lyase activity is minimal in humans ( 6 ). The 17-hydroxylase induces rapid conversion of substrate pregnenolone (PE) and progesterone (P4) into intermediate precursors 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHPE) and 17 - hydroxyprogesterone (17

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Ishita Gupta Department of Genetics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkoudh, Sultanate of Oman

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Allal Ouhtit Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

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Adil Al-Ajmi Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkoudh, Sultanate of Oman

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Syed Gauhar A Rizvi Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkoudh, Sultanate of Oman

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Hamad Al-Riyami Department of Genetics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkoudh, Sultanate of Oman

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Marwa Al-Riyami Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkoudh, Sultanate of Oman

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Yahya Tamimi Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkoudh, Sultanate of Oman

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and/or carriers of benign tumors from January 2012 to April 2014 underwent biopsy and breast cancer surgery. Breast cancer was confirmed by biopsy reports as well as pathologically by molecular tests including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone

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