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Ekaterina Koledova Biopharma Global Medical Affairs, General Medicine and Endocrinology, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

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George Stoyanov Biopharma Global Medical Affairs, General Medicine and Endocrinology, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

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Leroy Ovbude Business & Decision Life Sciences, Brussels, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Belgium

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Peter S W Davies Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Introduction Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is approved for use in the treatment of children with various aetiologies, including growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) and born small for gestational age (SGA) with no

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Lukas Plachy Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Lenka Petruzelkova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Petra Dusatkova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Klara Maratova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Dana Zemkova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Lenka Elblova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Vit Neuman Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Stanislava Kolouskova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Barbora Obermannova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Marta Snajderova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Zdenek Sumnik Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Jan Lebl Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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Stepanka Pruhova Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic

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transmitted mainly in an autosomal dominant (AD) matter and may thus cause monogenic FSS. Apart from growth plate disorders, heterozygous mutations in genes affecting the growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis are also known to cause

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Stefan M Constantinescu Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Thierry Duprez Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Edward Fomekong Department of Neurosurgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Christian Raftopoulos Department of Neurosurgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Orsalia Alexopoulou Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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Dominique Maiter Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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-related tumor growth, younger age, hormone or visual deficits, as well as unremitting headache are recognized indications for surgery, although they need to be discussed on a case by case basis by a specialized multidisciplinary pituitary team ( 6 ). When

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Jens F Rehfeld Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Introduction The word hormone originates from the Greek word ’hormoa’. It was proposed by the British linguist WB Hardy and introduced by Ernest Starling in his Croonian Lectures published in ‘The Lancet’ in 1905 ( 1 ) – 3 years after his and

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Brenda Anguiano Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México

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Carlos Montes de Oca Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México

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Evangelina Delgado-González Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México

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Carmen Aceves Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México

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or thyroxine; TRAMP, transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate. TRH, thyrotropin releasing hormone; VEGFA, vascular endothelial growth factor; XIAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. Prostate pathologies Benign prostate

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Michael Ulm University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
West Cancer Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

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Arvind V Ramesh White Station High School, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

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Keely M McNamara Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

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Suriyan Ponnusamy University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

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Hironobu Sasano Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

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Ramesh Narayanan University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
West Cancer Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

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review. Prostate and hormone receptor-positive breast cancers share the common feature of their dependence on the respective male and female hormones for their continued growth. Both estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) are promoters of

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A C Paepegaey Nutrition Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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M Coupaye Nutrition Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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A Jaziri Nutrition Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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F Ménesguen Nutrition Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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B Dubern Nutrition and Gastroenterology Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Armand Trousseau Children’s Hospital, Paris, France

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M Polak Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Gynecology Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Necker Enfants Malades Hospital University Hospital, Paris, France

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J M Oppert Nutrition Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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M Tauber Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Children’s Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Toulouse, France

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G Pinto Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Gynecology Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Necker Enfants Malades Hospital University Hospital, Paris, France

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C Poitou Nutrition Department, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, French Reference Center for Prader-Willi Syndrome, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
INSERM, UMRS 1166, Nutriomic Group 6, Paris, France
Sorbonne Université, UMRS1166, Paris, France

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in children, cognitive disabilities and psychiatric features ( 3 ). The most frequent endocrine involvement includes hypogonadism with cryptorchidism in 80% of cases and primary amenorrhea in 56% of cases ( 2 ). Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is

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Prishila Fookeerah Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia
School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia

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Winny Varikatt Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Meena Shingde Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Mark A J Dexter Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Department of Neurosurgery, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia

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Mark McLean Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia
School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia

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secretion. All eight tumours causing acromegaly expressed growth hormone (GH) and produced elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels (mean 3.1× upper limit of normal). Of these, six tumours expressed prolactin, but none caused high serum prolactin

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Huma Qamar Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Nandita Perumal Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Eszter Papp Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Alison D Gernand Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

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Abdullah Al Mahmud Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Daniel E Roth Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Larsson TE Fibroblast growth factor-23 regulates parathyroid hormone and 1alpha-hydroxylase expression in cultured bovine parathyroid cells . Journal of Endocrinology 2007 195 125 – 131 . ( https://doi.org/10.1677/JOE-07-0267 ) 27 Kawata T

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Jelena Stankovic Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Kurt Kristensen Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus (SDCA), Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Niels Birkebæk Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Esben Søndergaard Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus (SDCA), Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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, which is commonly used for diagnosing growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in children ( 6 , 7 ), has proven valuable as a stimulant of the posterior pituitary too ( 1 ). Arginine-stimulated copeptin measurements is suggested as a safe and expedient

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