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Michael Ulm, Arvind V Ramesh, Keely M McNamara, Suriyan Ponnusamy, Hironobu Sasano and Ramesh Narayanan

, androgen that is responsible for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland, is also responsible for the development of PCa. There are multiple stages of PCa progression; each stage is determined based on the severity of the disease, castration

Open access

Chenghao Piao, Xiaojie Wang, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyu Guo, Hui Zhao, Li He, Yan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Kewen Zhu and Yiwei Wang

foetus for development ( 5 ). The need for maternal insulin is an elevated result of gestational insulin resistance, which is impacted by attenuated food intake and placental hormone production. Consequently, the sizes of pancreatic β cells are enhanced

Open access

Magdalene K Montgomery and Nigel Turner

, 33, 34) . Both the increase in mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity (35) , as well as the development of IR (36) , occur at around 3–4 weeks of high-fat feeding. Furthermore, in a recent comparison of mouse strain, our group showed that this

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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

complicated and ambiguous pathogenesis. Many risk factors have been identified, such as obesity, genetics and early childhood growth patterns ( 4 , 5 ). Data from many studies suggest that genetics is very important in the development of PCOS. A Dutch twin

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Li Li, Qifa Song and Xi Yang

information for precision medicine. The classification of ever-increasing patients with obesity is a prerequisite for the precision intervention of this condition ( 20 ). Clinically, the primary unhealthy state related to obesity is the development of IGT

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M Krause, H Frederiksen, K Sundberg, F S Jørgensen, L N Jensen, P Nørgaard, C Jørgensen, P Ertberg, J H Petersen, U Feldt-Rasmussen, A Juul, K T Drzewiecki, N E Skakkebaek and A M Andersson

reach the fetus. Successful intrauterine development of the human fetus is highly dependent on hormonal regulation, and disturbance of hormones during pregnancy might therefore have dramatic consequences for the development of the unborn child. In

Open access

Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

, interleukin 6 (IL6), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and resistin are among the adipocytokines secreted from the WAT. In obese humans, these adipocytokines play a role in the development of a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central

Open access

Sofia S Pereira, Mariana P Monteiro, Sonir R Antonini and Duarte Pignatelli

the main reasons associated to adrenal tumor cells resistance to chemotherapy is compromised apoptosis signaling, a fact that deregulates the balance between cell death and survival, thus facilitating tumor development, invasion and resistance to

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Anna Kistner, Mireille Vanpée and Kerstin Hall

insulin resistance (7) . In some studies, under-nutrition in utero has been associated with increased catch-up growth in childhood, increased relative percent body fat, and obesity (8, 9, 10, 11) . It is known that the development of type 2 diabetes

Open access

Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond and Naftali Stern

levels and HbA1c ( 11 , 13 ). Hypoandrogenism in men and hyperandrogenism in women (e.g., the polycystic ovary syndrome) have been linked to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome ( 13 , 14 ). In one report, SHBG levels predicted the development