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Emma Jernberg, Anders Bergh and Pernilla Wikström

reduces tumour growth. Although ADT is initially effective in most patients, the disease progresses within a few years into an incurable and lethal stage of castration resistance. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is usually established as bone

Open access

Rimesh Pal, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Awesh Singhare, Anil Bhansali, Sadishkumar Kamalanathan, Manoj Chadha, Phulrenu Chauhan, Ashwani Sood, Vandana Dhiman, Dinesh Chandra Sharma, Uma Nahar Saikia, Debajyoti Chatterjee and Vikas Agashe

further impairs intestinal absorption of phosphate and deters mineralization of the osteoid matrix. Chronic hypophosphatemia leads to skeletal manifestations of osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children ( 11 ). Adults complain of bone pains, fatigue

Open access

Elizabeth M Winter, Alex Ireland, Natalie Clare Butterfield, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Marie-Noelle Horcajada, Annegreet Veldhuis-Vlug, Ling Oei, Graziana Colaianni and Nicolas Bonnet

In this review we discuss skeletal adaptations to the demanding situation of pregnancy and lactation. Calcium demands are increased during pregnancy and lactation, and this is effectuated by a complex series of hormonal changes. The changes in bone structure at the tissue and whole bone level observed during pregnancy and lactation appear to largely recover over time. The magnitude of the changes observed during lactation may relate to the volume and duration of breastfeeding and return to regular menses. Studies examining long-term consequences of pregnancy and lactation suggest that there are small, site-specific benefits to bone density, and that bone geometry may also be affected. Pregnancy- and lactation-induced osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare disease for which the pathophysiological mechanism is as yet incompletely known; here we discuss and speculate on the possible roles of genetics, oxytocin, sympathetic tone and bone marrow fat. Finally, we discuss fracture healing during pregnancy and lactation and the effects of estrogen on this process.

Open access

Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März and Marlene Pandis

Introduction Vitamin D is critical for bone and mineral metabolism and is effective in the prevention and treatment of rickets and osteomalacia ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). Given that vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are expressed in almost every

Open access

Lin Ji, Huan-Tong Wu, Xiao-Yan Qin and Rongfeng Lan

(BDNF) secretion from cortical neurons ( 7 ), low bone mineral density and deficits in learning and memory ( 15 ). Therefore, pathophysiological conditions observed in Cpe fat /Cpe fat mice and Cpe KO mice suggest that CPE plays a variety of roles in

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Juliane Léger, Anne Fjellestad-Paulsen, Anne Bargiacchi, Catherine Doyen, Emmanuel Ecosse, Jean-Claude Carel and Marie-France Le Heuzey

bone age ≤13 years. All patients had normal brain magnetic resonance imaging results and a normal karyotype. Patients were included regardless of their GH secretion status. The exclusion criteria were other known chronic diseases or the initiation of

Open access

Anita Hokken-Koelega, Aart-Jan van der Lely, Berthold Hauffa, Gabriele Häusler, Gudmundur Johannsson, Mohamad Maghnie, Jesús Argente, Jean DeSchepper, Helena Gleeson, John W Gregory, Charlotte Höybye, Fahrettin Keleştimur, Anton Luger, Hermann L Müller, Sebastian Neggers, Vera Popovic-Brkic, Eleonora Porcu, Lars Sävendahl, Stephen Shalet, Bessie Spiliotis and Maithé Tauber

composition and bone mineral density ( Fig. 3 ), as well as improved lipid profiles and improved quality of life (QoL) measures. A delay in continuing GH therapy in young adults with CO-GHD appears to negatively impact many of these effects. One major issue

Open access

Florian W Kiefer

acquire a thermogenic signature with high UCP-1 expression and increased energy consumption similar to bone fide brown adipocytes ( 2 , 3 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). Despite some mutual features, brown and beige adipocytes also have very distinct

Open access

Martin Zweifel, Beat Thürlimann, Salome Riniker, Patrik Weder, Roger von Moos, Olivia Pagani, Martin Bigler, Karin M Rothgiesser, Christiane Pilop, Hanne Hawle, Peter Brauchli, Coya Tapia, Wolfgang Schoenfeld, Cristiana Sessa and for the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK)

Introduction For the treatment of breast cancer (BC), testosterone was already used extensively between the 1930s and 1960s with anecdotal tumour responses (especially in bone metastases) seen in up to 20% of treated women ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

Open access

Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Claudio Marelli, Sharif Uddin, Pierre Zelissen, Robert D Murray and on behalf of the EU-AIR Investigators

glucocorticoid replacement therapy in AI ( 13 ). Recent data, however, suggest that prednisolone is deleterious for bone mineral density in AI ( 17 , 19 , 33 , 34 ). Few comparative data with hydrocortisone for additional steroid-dependent end points are