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Jeremy Turner, Neil Gittoes, Peter Selby and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

thyroidectomy. Hypocalcaemia may be temporary or permanent. Other causes include: Following selective parathyroidectomy (hypocalcaemia is usually transient and mild) Severe vitamin D deficiency Mg 2+ deficiency (consider PPI-associated hypo

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Yessica Agudelo-Zapata, Luis Miguel Maldonado-Acosta, Héctor Fabio Sandoval-Alzate, Natalia Elvira Poveda, María Fernanda Garcés, Jonathan Alexander Cortés-Vásquez, Andrés Felipe Linares-Vaca, Carlos Alejandro Mancera-Rodríguez, Shahar Alexandra Perea-Ariza, Karen Yuliana Ramírez-Iriarte, Camilo Andrés Castro-Saldarriaga, Juan Manuel Arteaga-Diaz, Roberto Franco-Vega, Edith Ángel-Müller, Arturo José Parada-Baños and Jorge E Caminos

correlation between elevated serum leptin levels and low serum 25OHD levels in the general population ( 4 ). Moreover, Zabul et al. proposes that vitamin D3 might acts as a competitive inhibitor of placental cytochrome P450scc preventing the production of

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Tingting Jia, Ya-nan Wang, Dongjiao Zhang and Xin Xu

osseointegration that negatively affects implant stability ( 13 ). Clinical research has also indicated AGEs may be considered as a potential marker of inflammation levels in diabetic individuals with peri-implantitis ( 14 ). Vitamin D is an essential steroid

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Jennifer Walsh, Neil Gittoes, Peter Selby and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

Introduction Under physiological conditions, serum calcium concentration is tightly regulated. Abnormalities of parathyroid function, bone resorption, renal calcium reabsorption or dihydroxylation of vitamin D may cause regulatory mechanisms

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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

-stimulating hormone receptor ( FSHR ) gene polymorphisms, fat mass and obesity-associated ( FTO ) gene polymorphisms, insulin receptor ( IR ) and IR substrate ( IRS ) polymorphisms, vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) polymorphisms, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR

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Vickie Braithwaite, Kerry S Jones, Shima Assar, Inez Schoenmakers and Ann Prentice

increased urinary P excretion through a decreased reabsorption of P from the glomerular filtrate. As well as having direct effects on P metabolism, FGF23 targets enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism. These include cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP

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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

 1. Viruses (rubella, enteroviruses)  2. Diet (cow’s milk, cereals, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D)  3. Gut microbiota D. Immunologic factors  1. Immune tolerance (central, peripheral, Tregs)  2. Cellular immunity

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Rimesh Pal, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Awesh Singhare, Anil Bhansali, Sadishkumar Kamalanathan, Manoj Chadha, Phulrenu Chauhan, Ashwani Sood, Vandana Dhiman, Dinesh Chandra Sharma, Uma Nahar Saikia, Debajyoti Chatterjee and Vikas Agashe

responsible for the increased FGF23 production ( 8 , 9 ). Besides causing phosphaturia, FGF23 inhibits renal 1α-hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxy vitamin D to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D ( 10 ). Low levels of active vitamin D

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Ali Abbasi

A9 , rs17300741/ SLC22A11 , rs1165151/ SLC17A1 , rs2231142/ ABCG2 , rs734553/ SLC2A9 Null Vitamin D 3 (17, 28, 45) DIAGRAMv3, ADDITION-Ely, Norfolk Diabetes, Cambridgeshire, EPIC-InterAct US, Europe/2015 281 44/76 344 rs12785878/DHCR7, rs10741657

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Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer

composition, hormones and menstrual cyclicity, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia, CRP and serum amyloid A (surrogate measures of cardiovascular risk) ( 113 ). Vitamin D deficiency is reported to be common in PCOS ( 114 ). It may exacerbate