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Dorte Glintborg Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Katrine Hass Rubin OPEN – Odense Patient data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Mads Nybo Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Bo Abrahamsen OPEN – Odense Patient data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Holbæk Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark

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Marianne Andersen Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comprises irregular ovulation, hyperandrogenism, and/or polycystic ovaries when no other etiology can be found ( 1 ). Frank (overt) hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance

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Agnieszka Adamska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Aleksandra Maria Polak Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Anna Krentowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Agnieszka Łebkowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Justyna Hryniewicka Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Monika Leśniewska Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Irina Kowalska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known as the most common endocrinological disorder and affects up to 20% of premenopausal women ( 1 ). PCOS is characterized by clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, ovulatory

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Rong Huang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Jun Zheng Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Shengxian Li Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Lihua Wang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Tao Tao Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Xiangyu Teng Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Jing Ma Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Wei Liu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai 200127, People's Republic of China

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Ladan Younesi Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

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Zeinab Safarpour Lima Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

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Azadeh Akbari Sene Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF Fellowship, Shahid Akbar-Abadi Hospital IVF Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Zahra Hosseini Jebelli Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

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Ghazaleh Amjad Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit (ShACRDU), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

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and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: current perspectives . International Journal of Women’s Health 2015 7 745 – 763 . ( https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH ) 26261426 7 Navaratnarajah R Pillay OC Hardiman P. Polycystic

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Mírian Romitti Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Vitor C Fabris Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Patricia K Ziegelmann Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology and Department of Statistics, Institute of Mathematics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Ana Luiza Maia Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Poli Mara Spritzer Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The worldwide prevalence of PCOS ranges from 9 to 19.9%, depending on population characteristics and diagnostic criteria ( 1 , 2 , 3

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Carla Scaroni Dipartimento di Medicina, U.O.C. Endocrinologia, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy

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Nora M Albiger Dipartimento di Medicina, U.O.C. Endocrinologia, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy

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Serena Palmieri Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy

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Davide Iacuaniello Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Sezione di Endocrinologia, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli, Italy

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Chiara Graziadio Department of Experimental Medicine, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy

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Luca Damiani Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine Section, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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Marialuisa Zilio Dipartimento di Medicina, U.O.C. Endocrinologia, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy

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Antonio Stigliano Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant’Andrea Hospital, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy

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Annamaria Colao Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Sezione di Endocrinologia, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli, Italy

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Rosario Pivonello Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Sezione di Endocrinologia, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli, Italy

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the Altogether to Beat Cushing’s Syndrome (ABC) study group
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of the organism to survival ( 1 ). Some common endocrine diseases including obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic alcoholism, and psychiatric disorders may also coincide with HPA axis activation

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Karim Gariani Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Therapeutic Patient Education, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland

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François R Jornayvaz Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Therapeutic Patient Education, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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. Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine syndrome frequently encountered in young women of childbearing age, with a prevalence of 8–15% ( 70 ). PCOS is best defined by the Rotterdam criteria, that is, oligo

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Stavroula A Paschou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Eleni Palioura Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Dimitrios Ioannidis Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sismanoglio-Amalia Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Argyro Panagiotakou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sismanoglio-Amalia Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Vasiliki Loi Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Georgios Karageorgos Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sismanoglio-Amalia Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Dimitrios G Goulis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Andromachi Vryonidou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism ( 1 ). It is often accompanied by insulin resistance ( 2 ) and abnormal lipid profile ( 3 , 4 ). Several studies have shown that

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Neil R Chappell Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

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Beth Zhou Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

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Amy K Schutt Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

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William E Gibbons Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

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Chellakkan S Blesson Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Family Fertility Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovulatory disorder in the world, affecting 5–10% of women, translating to ~100 million women worldwide ( 1 ). PCOS is associated with increased obstetric risks including

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Vittorio Unfer Health Department, UniPoliSi – Institut des Etudes Universitaires, Disentis, Switzerland

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Fabio Facchinetti Mother-Infant Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

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Beatrice Orrù Medical Affairs Department, Lo.Li. Pharma, Rome, Italy

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Barbara Giordani Medical Affairs Department, Lo.Li. Pharma, Rome, Italy

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John Nestler Departments of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA

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prevent and/or treat a number of metabolic disorders related to IR, such as the metabolic syndrome ( 4 , 5 ), gestational diabetes mellitus ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ) and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). PCOS is a heterogeneous

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