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David P Sonne Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark

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Asger Lund Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark

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Jens Faber Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark

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Jens J Holst Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark

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Tina Vilsbøll Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark

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Filip K Knop Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegårdsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark

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carbohydrate and 13 g protein; medium fat: 10 g fat, 93 g carbohydrate and 11 g protein and high fat: 40 g fat, 32 g carbohydrate and 3 g protein). Four type 2 diabetes patients were treated with diet alone, eight were also treated with metformin and three with

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Angela Köninger Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Antonella Iannaccone Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ensar Hajder Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Mirjam Frank Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Boerge Schmidt Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ekkehard Schleussner Department of Obstetrics, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

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Rainer Kimmig Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Alexandra Gellhaus Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Hans Dieplinger Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

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Essen, between 2009 and 2018, became pregnant and from whom pre-pregnant serum samples as well as knowledge about pregnancy outcome were available. We included only women with live births. Patients who were treated with metformin during their pregnancy

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Adrian F Daly Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Liège Université, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium

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Liliya Rostomyan Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Liège Université, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium

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Daniela Betea Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Liège Université, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium

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Jean-François Bonneville Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Liège Université, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium

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Chiara Villa Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Liège Université, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium
Department of Pathological Cytology and Anatomy, Foch Hospital, Paris, France

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Natalia S Pellegata Institute for Diabetes and Cancer, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany

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Beatrice Waser Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Jean-Claude Reubi Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Catherine Waeber Stephan Clinique Générale Ste-Anne, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Emanuel Christ Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

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Albert Beckers Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Liège, Liège Université, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium

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did not improve his control. His impaired glucose tolerance worsened and he was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus that required treatment with metformin. Over the following years there was evidence of tumor expansion during somatostatin analog

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Yuan Fang Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xuehong Zhang Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Huilin Xu Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Minhang District, Shanghai, China

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Stephanie A Smith-Warner Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Dongli Xu Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Minhang District, Shanghai, China

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Hong Fang Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Minhang District, Shanghai, China

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Wang Hong Xu Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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metformin may decrease the risk of cancer possibly by attenuating insulin/IGF-1 signaling, inhibiting target of rapamycin and mitochondrial complex I in the electron transport chain in mammals, activating adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase and

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Chun-feng Lu Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Wang-shu Liu Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xiao-qin Ge Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Feng Xu Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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significantly increased ( P for trend < 0.05), whereas the percentage of females, percentage of patients using insulin, and eGFR decreased ( P for trend > 0.05). There were significant differences in the use of metformin, acarbose, insulin sensitizers and

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Hamidreza Mani Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Yogini Chudasama Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Michelle Hadjiconstantinou Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Danielle H Bodicoat Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Charlotte Edwardson Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
The Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Leicester and Loughborough, UK

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Miles J Levy Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Laura J Gray Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

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Janette Barnett Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Heather Daly Leicester Medical Group, Thurmaston Health Centre, Leicester, UK

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Trevor A Howlett Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Kamlesh Khunti Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Melanie J Davies Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester Diabetes Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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. Randomisation was 1:1 to the intervention or control arm, stratified for age (<35 years or ≥35 years), ethnicity (white or non-white) and current use of metformin (yes or no). The study was un-blinded due to the nature of the intervention. Participants were

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Peter Wolf Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Alexandre Dormoy Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Luigi Maione Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Sylvie Salenave Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Jacques Young Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Peter Kamenický Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Philippe Chanson Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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medication (metformin monotherapy (six patients (42%)) or in combination with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or sulfonylurea (three patients (21%)). Table 1 Information on changes in disease activity, tumor size and clinical parameters in

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Daiki Kobayashi Division of General Internal Medicine Department of Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Epidemiology St. Luke’s International University Graduate School of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan
Fujita Health University Toyoake, Japan

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Nagato Kuriyama Department of Epidemiology for Community Health and Medicine Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

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Keita Hirano Department of Nephrology Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

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Osamu Takahashi Division of General Internal Medicine Department of Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Epidemiology St. Luke’s International University Graduate School of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan

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Hiroshi Noto Department of Endocrinology St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

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study. First, our data contained only diabetes treatment status, so the types of medication were unknown. Certain medications, such as pioglitazone or metformin, may cause or prevent cancer ( 38 , 39 ). A recent meta-analysis reported that pioglitazone

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Ann-Kristin Picke Institute of Comparative Molecular Endocrinology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany

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Graeme Campbell Institute of Biomechanics, TUHH Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

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Nicola Napoli Diabetes and Bone Network, Department Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy
Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri, USA

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Lorenz C Hofbauer Department of Medicine III & Center for Healthy Aging, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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Martina Rauner Department of Medicine III & Center for Healthy Aging, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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vivo studies Human in vivo studies Bone formation Bone resorption BMD Fracture healing Bone formation Bone resorption BMD Fracture risk Antidiabetic treatment  Metformin

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Yi Chen Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Wen Zhang Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Chi Chen Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yuying Wang Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Ningjian Wang Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yingli Lu Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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diabetes, current smoking, concentration of HbA1c, 25(OH)D and Cr, and the use of metformin and thiazolidinediones. The results were expressed as B values and 95% CIs. Considering the significant sex differences in bone metabolism between men and women, all

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