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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

mechanisms, which may differently affect bone metabolism. In both cases, the underlying mechanisms of poor bone strength are not well understood. Considering that T2DM accounts for the majority of diabetes cases (>90%), this review will focus on summarizing

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Huguette S Brink, Aart Jan van der Lely and Joke van der Linden

GD pathogenesis. Combining biomarkers and risk factors into a predictive model may add to early prediction of GD, evoke effective prevention strategies and may ultimately reduce complications associated with GD. The aim of this review is to ( 1

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Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro and Susana Silberstein

been implicated in CRHR functions, including ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs, PKA, Akt, NFkB, GSK-3b/Wnt, RhoA as well as other important signaling molecules such as cAMP, calcium, IP3 and nitric oxide/cGMP ( 10 ). Here, we review the principal characteristics

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Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Peter E Clayton, Catherine S Choong, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John J Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irene Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Solberg, Christian Strasburger, Peter Trainer, Kevin C J Yuen, Kerstin Wickstrom, Jens O L Jorgensen and on behalf of the Growth Hormone Research Society

, Denmark, on November 15–18, 2017 to review the current state of the field and address key issues regarding the definition of clinical endpoints for GH therapy and treatment of acromegaly, to critically evaluate current surrogate endpoints for GH therapy

Open access

Ping Li, Fei Cheng and Lei Xiu

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search strategies were (growth hormone or somatotropin or somatropin or somatotrophin or somatrophin or Pituitary Growth Hormone or Recombinant Growth Hormones) and (Turner syndrome or Ullrich-Turner Syndrome or

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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

steroid biosynthesis and action, gonadotropic secretion and action, folliculogenesis, weight and energy regulation and insulin action ( 13 ). In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of the main genetic polymorphisms that were found or

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Rajae Talbi and Victor M Navarro

. However, the mechanisms mediating the interaction between reproductive function and energy balance are still largely unexplored. This review provides a summary of the action of Kiss1 neurons in the bidirectional interaction between reproduction and

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Sofia S Pereira, Mariana P Monteiro, Sonir R Antonini and Duarte Pignatelli

treatment ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). In the following section, we will briefly review the regulation of apoptosis and then explore the abnormalities in apoptosis in ACC that have been reported to date. Caspases alterations There are two main apoptosis

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Magdalene K Montgomery and Nigel Turner

, mitochondrial function (and mitochondrial dysfunction) plays an important role in metabolic health and cellular fate. Mitochondrial function can be defined in a number of different ways, but for the purpose of this review we have largely focussed on the role of

Open access

Maria Cristina De Martino, Richard A Feelders, Claudia Pivonello, Chiara Simeoli, Fortuna Papa, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello and Leo J Hofland

current review. GFs, growth factors; GFR, growth factor receptor. Brown lines show two potential escape pathways to the treatment with mTOR inhibitors: AKT and ERK activation. This review aims at summarizing the results of the studies evaluating