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Deirdre Green Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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Rosemary Dineen Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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Michael W O’Reilly Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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Mark Sherlock Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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. Allolio et al. demonstrated correlations between serum progesterone and salivary cortisol during pregnancy. They suggest that elevated plasma free cortisol levels may result from the anti-glucocorticoid effects of elevated progesterone concentrations in

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Yasmin Shibli Abu Raya Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Asaf Bilgory Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Nardin Aslih Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Yuval Atzmon Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Maya Shavit Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Daniela Estrada Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Moamina Sharqawi Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

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Einat Shalom-Paz Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Gynecological Research Laboratory, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, The Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

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purified human menopausal gonadotropin alone (Menopur, Ferring, Israel); or (iii) a combination of both. Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were routinely measured at every follow-up visit, including the day of β-hCG (Ovitrelle Merck

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Enrique Pedernera Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Embriología y Genética, Ciudad de México, México

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Flavia Morales-Vásquez Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México, México

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María J Gómora Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Embriología y Genética, Ciudad de México, México

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Miguel A Almaraz Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Embriología y Genética, Ciudad de México, México

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Esteban Mena Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Secretaría General, Ciudad de México, México
Universidad La Salle, Posgrado de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Ciudad de México, México

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Delia Pérez-Montiel Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México, México

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Elizabeth Rendon Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatología. Ciudad de México, México

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Horacio López-Basave Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México, México

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Juan Maldonado-Cubas Universidad La Salle, Posgrado de la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Ciudad de México, México

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Carmen Méndez Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Embriología y Genética, Ciudad de México, México

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female reproductive events. Further, ovarian tumors are considered sensitive to sex steroid hormones, as they are mediated by specific androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors ( 3 ). Additionally, the steroid hormone receptor shows a particular

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Srdjan Pandurevic Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Ilaria Mancini Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Italy

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Dimitri Mitselman Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Matteo Magagnoli Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Rita Teglia Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Roberta Fazzeri Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Paola Dionese Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Carolina Cecchetti Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Massimiliamo Caprio Department of Human Sciences and Quality of Life Promotion, San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, IRCCS San Raffaele, Rome, Italy

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Costanzo Moretti Department of Systems Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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Justyna Sicinska Dermatology Clinic of CSK MSWiA Hospital, Warsaw, Poland

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Alessandro Agostini Department of Experimental, Diagnostic, and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Domenica Gazineo Teaching Hospital, S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy

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Lea Godino Teaching Hospital, S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy

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Ignacio Sajoux Epigenomics in Endocrinology and Nutrition Group, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), Spain
Medical Department Pronokal Group, Barcelona, Spain

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Flaminia Fanelli Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Cristina M Meriggiola Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Italy

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Uberto Pagotto Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Alessandra Gambineri Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes Prevention and Care, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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OH-progesterone, and progesterone) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), at the Center for Applied Biomedical Research of the University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital. The same day, a medical examination was made, during

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Mírian Romitti Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Vitor C Fabris Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Patricia K Ziegelmann Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology and Department of Statistics, Institute of Mathematics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Ana Luiza Maia Thyroid Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Poli Mara Spritzer Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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elements, enhancement of T suppressor cell activity, promotion of TH1 response and activation of CD8C ( 49 ). In addition, progesterone levels may inhibit macrophage proliferation, IL6 synthesis and peripheral antibody production ( 50 ). Also, in vivo and

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Lijuan Yuan Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for DNA Typing, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Xihui Chen Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for DNA Typing, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Ziyu Liu Department of Microbiology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Dan Wu Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for DNA Typing, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Jianguo Lu Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Guoqiang Bao Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Sijia Zhang Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for DNA Typing, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Lifeng Wang Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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Yuanming Wu Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for DNA Typing, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China

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performed. The premature ovarian atrophy was diagnosed by invisibility of both ovaries ( Fig. 4G and H ) accompanied by the atrophy of uterus. Serum sexual hormones were then detected by radioimmunoassay. Estradiol and progesterone levels were low ( Table

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Virginie Grouthier Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, GH La Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles-Foix, Center for Rare Gynecological Diseases, Paris, France
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

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Zeina Chakhtoura Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, GH La Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles-Foix, Center for Rare Gynecological Diseases, Paris, France

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Isabelle Tejedor Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, GH La Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles-Foix, Center for Rare Gynecological Diseases, Paris, France

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Yasmina Badachi Department of General Radiology, GH La Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles-Foix, Paris, France

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Vincent Goffin Inserm U1151 – CNRS UMR 8253, Institut Necker Enfants Malades (INEM), Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Paris, France

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Philippe Touraine Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, GH La Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles-Foix, Center for Rare Gynecological Diseases, Paris, France
Sorbonne Université, F-75013, Paris, France

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). Moreover, estradiol and progesterone receptor levels were also higher in FAs recently detected ( 8 ). The possible role of prolactin has also been suspected ( 9 ). However, no established systemic hormonal imbalance has been demonstrated as of yet ( 9 , 10

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Roberto Cosimo Melcangi Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

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Livio Casarini Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

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Marco Marino Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

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Daniele Santi Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Department of Medical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Modena, Italy

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Samantha Sperduti Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy

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Silvia Giatti Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

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Silvia Diviccaro Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

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Maria Grimoldi Neurology Division, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy

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Donatella Caruso Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

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Guido Cavaletti Experimental Neurology Unit and Milan Center for Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy

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Manuela Simoni Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Department of Medical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Modena, Italy

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into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and progesterone into dihydroprogesterone (DHP) ( 3 ). Clinically, finasteride is used to control the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia and of androgenetic alopecia. Albeit being a well-tolerated and relatively

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Nafiye Helvaci Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

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Erdem Karabulut Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

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Ahmet Ugur Demir Department of Chest Diseases, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

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Bulent Okan Yildiz Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

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lower levels of progesterone. Data derived from the studies in which sleep was evaluated in relation to pregnancy, phase of menstrual cycle, menopause or hormone replacement therapy, suggests that progesterone has a protective effect against OSA ( 34

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Anastasia K Armeni Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Konstantinos Assimakopoulos Department of Psychiatry, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Dimitra Marioli Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Vassiliki Koika Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Euthychia Michaelidou Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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Niki Mourtzi Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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Gregoris Iconomou Department of Psychiatry, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Neoklis A Georgopoulos Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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measured, whereas Free Androgen Index (FAI) was calculated on follicular phase. Progesterone levels were measured on luteal phase of menstrual cycle. LH, FSH and testosterone were determined based on Chemiluminescence (Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics

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