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Anna Kistner Women and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden

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Mireille Vanpée Women and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden

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Kerstin Hall Women and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden

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lean adult Chinese men and women, increased leptin levels were associated with insulin resistance and prediabetes (14) , although the causal relation was not revealed. In lipodystrophy, where individuals lack leptin and suffer from severe insulin

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Yee-Ming M Cheung Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Northwell, Great Neck, New York, USA

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Rudolf Hoermann Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Karen Van Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Damian Wu Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Jenny Healy Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Bella Halim Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Manjri Raval Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Maria McGill Department of Radiology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Ali Al-Fiadh Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia
Department of Cardiology, Austin Health, Melbourne Australia

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Michael Chao Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research and Wellness Centre, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Shane White Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research and Wellness Centre, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Belinda Yeo Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research and Wellness Centre, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia
Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Jeffrey D Zajac Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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Mathis Grossmann Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia

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 Metabolic syndrome c 15 (28.8) 17 (32.7) 0.83  CVD 2 (3.9) 2. (3.9) 1.00  Cerebrovascular disease 5 (9.6) 2 (3.9) 0.44  Pre-diabetes or diabetes 3 (5.8) 2 (3.9) 1.00  Hypertension 17 (32.7) 23 (44.2) 0

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Agnieszka Adamska Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Aleksandra Maria Polak Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Anna Krentowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Agnieszka Łebkowska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Justyna Hryniewicka Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Monika Leśniewska Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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Irina Kowalska Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

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prediabetes, in which the observed impairment of insulin secretion, especially first-phase secretion, is more severe than in young PCOS women. Our findings are in agreement with other data focused on the relationships between serum fetuin-B concentration and

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Kim K B Clemmensen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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Jonas S Quist Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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Dorte Vistisen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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Daniel R Witte Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Danish Diabetes Academy, Odense, Denmark

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Anna Jonsson NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Oluf Pedersen NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Torben Hansen NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jens J Holst NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Torsten Lauritzen Section for General Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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Marit E Jørgensen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark
National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Signe Torekov NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Kristine Færch Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark

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prediabetes, screen-detected type 2 diabetes, and obesity and influenced by sex: the ADDITION-PRO study . Diabetes 2015 64 2513 – 2525 . ( https://doi.org/10.2337/db14-1751 ) 19 Færch K Vistisen D Pacini G Torekov SS Johansen NB Witte DR

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Xiao-jun Zhou Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

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Lin Ding Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

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Jia-xin Liu Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

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Le-qun Su Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

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Jian-jun Dong Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

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Lin Liao Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

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( 1 ). In addition, the recent report from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in mainland China, reported a prevalence of 10.9% for diabetes, and 35.7% for prediabetes among Chinese adults in 2013 ( 2 ). With the alarming disease burden

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Emanuela Zaharieva Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Zdravko Kamenov Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Tsvetelina Velikova Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital St. Ivan Rilski, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Adelina Tsakova Department of Clinical Laboratory, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Central Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Yosif El-Darawish Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Cell Therapy, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan

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Haruki Okamura Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Cell Therapy, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan

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, blood pressure control, basal insulin, fasting plasma glucose ( 31 , 32 , 33 ) and insulin resistance index ( 34 ). Changes in IL-18 seem to be predictive of the risk of prediabetes ( 35 ) and T2D ( 35 , 36 , 37 ) in a way that is independent of

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Mohamed Asrih Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Patient Therapeutic Education, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

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Flore Sinturel Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland
Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Richard Dubos Department and Division of Primary Care Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland

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Idris Guessous Department and Division of Primary Care Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland

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Zoltan Pataky Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Patient Therapeutic Education, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Charna Dibner Thoracic and Endocrine Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland
Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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François R Jornayvaz Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Patient Therapeutic Education, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Karim Gariani Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Patient Therapeutic Education, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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identified as having prediabetes, a disorder that substantially increases the risk for diabetes ( 4 ). Thus, identification of relevant blood-based biomarkers allowing risk stratification in obese patients is required. As sex-specific differences in glucose

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Amar Osmancevic School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Kristin Ottarsdottir School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Margareta Hellgren School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Ulf Lindblad School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Bledar Daka School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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15 Cosentino F Grant PJ Aboyans V Bailey CJ Ceriello A Delgado V Federici M Filippatos G Grobbee DE Hansen TB , ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the

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Pernille Bækgaard Udesen The Fertility Clinic, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark
Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark

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Dorte Glintborg Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Anja Elaine Sørensen Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark

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Rikke Svendsen Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark

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Nanna Louise Skov Nielsen Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark
Department of Clinical Immunology, Næstved Hospital, Næstved, Denmark

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Marie Louise Muff Wissing Aleris Hamlet Hospital Group, The Fertility Clinic, Søborg, Denmark

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Marianne Skovsager Andersen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Anne Lis Mikkelsen Englund The Fertility Clinic, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark

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Louise Torp Dalgaard Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark

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. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2011 332 125 – 1 33 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2010.10.004 ) 20943204 45 Kong L Zhu J Han W Jiang X Xu M Zhao Y Dong Q Pang Z Guan Q Gao L et al . Significance of serum microRNAs in pre-diabetes

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Barbara J Boucher Blizard Institute, Barts & The London school of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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data on supplementation in T2DM ( 63 ). In pre-diabetes fasting plasma glucose fell with supplementation in subjects with baseline BMIs <25 or 25(OH)Ds of 50–75 nmol/L, insulin resistance was reduced with baseline 25(OH)Ds >75 nmol/L and reductions in T

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