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Nandini Shankara Narayana Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Lam P Ly Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Veena Jayadev Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Carolyn Fennell Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Sasha Savkovic Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Ann J Conway Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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David J Handelsman Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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comprising age, measures of body size or physique, serum hormones, and a subject term as a random variable using restricted maximum likelihood with a one-term autoregressive covariance structure. The relative explanatory power of different models was

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Signe Frøssing Department of Internal Medicine, Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Malin Nylander Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Caroline Kistorp Department of Internal Medicine, Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Sven O Skouby Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jens Faber Department of Internal Medicine, Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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study ( 24 ) and detailed information on design has previously been reported ( 21 ). Statistical analyses Change from baseline in the MR-proADM level was a secondary endpoint in the LIPT study. Power analysis performed on the primary endpoint

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Luca Giovanella Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland
Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

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Maria Luisa Garo Mathsly Research, Brescia and Vibo Valentia, Italy

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Domenico Albano Nuclear Medicine, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili Brescia, Brescia, Italy

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany

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Luca Ceriani Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland
Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Oncology Research, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Bellinzona, Switzerland

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included in the meta-analysis ( 10 ). A sensitivity analysis was performed to examine whether overall findings were robust to the chosen analysis method. Finally, the power of meta-analysis was calculated using the metapow command. Meta-analysis was

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L Bahler Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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H J Verberne Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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E Brakema Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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R Tepaske Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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J Booij Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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J B Hoekstra Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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F Holleman Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Power analysis Power calculation

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Mohammed S Albreiki Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Centre for Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK

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Benita Middleton Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Centre for Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK

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Shelagh M Hampton Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Centre for Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK

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towards the lights ( n  = 221; DL 1.21 ± 0.13, BL 552.7 ± 16; mean ±  s.e.m. ). Spectral composition of the light source was measured using a R203 power radiometer at horizontal (DL 0.001 w/m 2 , BL 0.98 w/m 2 ) and vertical level (DL 0.0008 w/m 2 , BL 0

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Xiaobing Lu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Jiang Yue Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Qianjing Liu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Shengyun He Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Ying Dong Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Ming Zhang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Yicheng Qi Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Minglan Yang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Wang Zhang Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Hua Xu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Qing Lu Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Jing Ma Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS software (version 26.0). G*Power software (version 3.1.9.7; Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany) was used to calculate the power (1 − β) of the study. The type of

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Mengting Yin Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Qianhui Liu Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Qingzhong Wang Jintang First People’s Hospital, West China Hospital Sichuan University Jingtang Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Yong He Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Haolan Song Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Xin Nie Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Guixing Li Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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, parathyroid hormone. The diagnostic power for the Ca/P ratio We analyzed the diagnostic performance of the Ca/P ratio using ROCs. The cut-off point was calculated using Youden’s index (sensitivity + specificity − 1). The ROC curve showed that

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Bjørn O Åsvold Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway

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Valdemar Grill Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway

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Ketil Thorstensen Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway

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Marit R Bjørgaas Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Endocrinology, Department of Public Health, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, P O Box 3250 Sluppen, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway

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used fractional polynomial regression to assess the association between dexamethasone and cortisol levels, both across the entire dexamethasone range and separately among people with dexamethasone >5.0 nmol/l. We only allowed one power term in the

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Changwei Liu Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Jingwen Wang Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Yuanyuan Wan Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Xiaona Xia Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Jian Pan Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Wei Gu Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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Mei Li Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

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power and sample size calculators ( http://www.powerandsamplesize.com/ ). Based on the previous study ( 11 ), we estimated the sample size for our study. If the power equaled 0.9, the minimum sample size was about 42. Our study met the minimum sample

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Ann-Cathrin Koschker Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Bodo Warrings Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Caroline Morbach Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Florian Seyfried Department of General, Visceral, Transplant, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Nicole Rickert Department of Radiology, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Pius Jung Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Andreas Geier Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Ulrich Dischinger Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Maike Krauthausen Department of General Practice, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Martin J Herrmann Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Christine Stier Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Department of General, Visceral, Transplant, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Stefan Frantz Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Uwe Malzahn Center for Clinical Trials, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Stefan Störk Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Martin Fassnacht Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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the WAS Study Group
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at the time points indicated in Supplementary Table 2. For the documentation of changes in obesity-related conditions, we applied definitions given in Supplementary Table 3. Sample size calculation, power analysis, and adaptation of the

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