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J Brossaud, V Pallet and J-B Corcuff

Introduction Vitamin A (retinol) is a lipophilic micronutrient that is critical for embryo and child development ( 1 , 2 ). In adults, vitamin A and metabolites (mainly retinoic acid) are critical for the control of cell proliferation and

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Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Peter Lommer Kristensen

remission period, a shorter median survival and a higher rate of side effects to the antineoplastic therapy ( 4 ). Despite the potential clinical significance, there are only scarce data on incidence of and risk factors for development of DM during high

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Veronica Kieffer, Kate Davies, Christine Gibson, Morag Middleton, Jean Munday, Shashana Shalet, Lisa Shepherd and Phillip Yeoh

taking into account other professional and political factors such as: The need for the development of UK-wide standards in adult endocrine nursing. The need for professional accreditation of skills and knowledge in practice. The increased focus on work

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Alessandra Gambineri and Carla Pelusi

Role of sex and gender on the development of type 2 diabetes There is increasing evidence that sex and gender differences influence the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and outcomes of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM

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Dorte Glintborg, Katrine Hass Rubin, Mads Nybo, Bo Abrahamsen and Marianne Andersen

prospective data regarding development of frank hypothyroidism ( 10 ). Increased autoimmunity in PCOS with higher secretion of TRAb antibodies could increase the risk for Graves’ disease and higher activity of the inflammatory system could increase the risk

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Caroline Culen, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering and Gabriele Haeusler

differences from their unaffected counterparts. As they grow older their phenotypical, psychosocial and intellectual development is seen to more clearly diverge from that of their normally developing peers. The typical TS-specific cognitive profile is

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Erika Peverelli, Federica Ermetici, Sabrina Corbetta, Ettore Gozzini, Laura Avagliano, Marco A Zappa, Gaetano Bulfamante, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Anna Spada and Giovanna Mantovani

are still scarce. In this study, we evaluated the expression of PKA regulatory subunits in human adipose tissue during fetal development as well as their role in the differentiation process of two in vitro cell models of adipogenesis, i.e., 3T3-L1

Open access

Xiaolei Hu and Fengling Chen

summarizes the characterization of IAs, the factors affecting IA development, the clinical significance of IAs and the treatments for EIAS. Characterization of IAs IAs’ representatives are found in all of the Ig classes. Among them, IgG is predominant

Open access

Emmanuelle Motte, Anya Rothenbuhler, Stephan Gaillard, Najiba Lahlou, Cécile Teinturier, Régis Coutant and Agnès Linglart

). The resulting hypercortisolism causes considerable morbidity in childhood and adolescence, predominantly affecting growth and pubertal development ( 1 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). The diagnosis is often delayed by at least 2 years after the first

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Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka and Rod T Mitchell

treatment on the testis or in supporting the restoration of fertility following treatment is poorly understood ( 5 ). In this review, we will describe the development and function of the key somatic cell populations in the testis and how they may be