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Julie M Silverstein Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8127, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA

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Introduction Acromegaly is a rare hormonal condition that develops most commonly from benign somatotroph pituitary adenomas and has a prevalence of 36–69 cases per million and an incidence of 3–4 cases per million per year (1, 2, 3, 4) . However

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Marko Stojanovic Neuroendocrinology Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia

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Zida Wu Department of Medicine for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutritional Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany

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Craig E Stiles Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Dragana Miljic Neuroendocrinology Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia

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Ivan Soldatovic University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia
Insitute of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Belgrade, Serbia

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Sandra Pekic Neuroendocrinology Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia

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Mirjana Doknic Neuroendocrinology Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia

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Milan Petakov Neuroendocrinology Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia

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Vera Popovic University of Belgrade, Medical Faculty, Belgrade, Serbia

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Christian Strasburger Department of Medicine for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutritional Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany

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Márta Korbonits Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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-secreting macroadenomas, resistant to somatostatin analogue (SA) treatment ( 17 , 18 ). AIP is thought to play an important role in the response to SA in acromegaly ( 19 ). Neither the exact mechanism of AIP influence on proliferation inhibition, nor its possible role in

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Adrian F Daly Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium

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David A Cano Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

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Eva Venegas-Moreno Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

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Patrick Petrossians Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium

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Elena Dios Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

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Emilie Castermans Department of Human Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium

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Alvaro Flores-Martínez Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

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Vincent Bours Department of Human Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium

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Albert Beckers Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège Université, Liège, Belgium

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Alfonso Soto-Moreno Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

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thyrotropinomas are rarer ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Treatment of pituitary adenomas varies according to the pituitary adenoma sub-type. Responses to therapy are variable due to heterogeneity among patient profiles and tumor characteristics. For instance, acromegaly

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Marta Araujo-Castro Neuroendocrinology Unit, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain

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Héctor Pian Endocrinology Unit, Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain

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Ignacio Ruz-Caracuel Endocrinology Unit, Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain

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Alberto Acitores Cancela Neuroendocrinology Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain

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Eider Pascual-Corrales Neuroendocrinology Unit, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain

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Víctor Rodríguez Berrocal Neuroendocrinology Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
Endoscopic Skull Base Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario HM Puerta del Sur, Madrid, Spain

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Introduction Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by the overproduction of growth hormone (GH), which is commonly secreted by a pituitary adenoma (PA). Because of cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic comorbidities, patients with

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Nadia Sabbah Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Hôpital de Cayenne, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies Métaboliques, Cayenne, Guyane Française

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Peter Wolf Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Céline Piedvache Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Séverine Trabado Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service de Génétique Moléculaire, Pharmacogénétique et Hormonologie, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Tristan Verdelet Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Catherine Cornu Centre d’Investigation Clinique, INSERM CIC1407/UMR5558, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France

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Jean-Claude Souberbielle Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Necker, Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles, Paris, France

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Philippe Chanson Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’Hypophyse, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Introduction IGF-1 measurement is important for the diagnosis and management of patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency or acromegaly as well as in their follow-up ( 1 , 2 ). We previously established normative data for six IGF-I assays

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Paula Bruna Araujo Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrine Unit, Medical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Diagnósticos da América SA, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Leandro Kasuki Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrine Unit, Medical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Neuroendocrinology Unit, Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Endocrinology Unit, Hospital Federal de Bonsucesso, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Carlos Henrique de Azeredo Lima Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Liana Ogino Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Aline H S Camacho Neuropathology Laboratory Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Leila Chimelli Neuropathology Laboratory Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Márta Korbonits Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UK

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Monica R Gadelha Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrine Unit, Medical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Neuroendocrinology Unit, Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein ( AIP ) gene mutations ( AIPmut ) were first described by Vierimaa and coworkers in 2006 ( 3 ). This study has found AIPmut in seemingly sporadic acromegaly patients and in familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA

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Nidan Qiao Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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pituitary neoplasms, acromegaly, Cushing’s disease, craniopharyngioma and growth hormone deficiency. More than half of the studies were published in the recent 2 years. Table 2 Summary of studies on sellar region disease using machine learning methods

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Amir H Zamanipoor Najafabadi Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Endocrine Tumors, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
Department of Neurosurgery, University Neurosurgical Centre Holland (UNCH), Leiden University Medical Centre, Haaglanden Medical Centre and Haga Teaching Hospitals, Leiden and The Hague, The Netherlands

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Merel van der Meulen Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Endocrine Tumors, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Ana Luisa Priego Zurita Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Endocrine Tumors, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands

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S Faisal Ahmed Chair of Work Package of E-Health & ICT of Endo-ERN, Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, University of Glasgow and Office for Rare Conditions, Royal Hospital for Children & Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK

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Wouter R van Furth Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Evangelia Charmandari Pediatric Chair Main Thematic Group 6 Pituitary of Endo-ERN, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, First Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, ‘Aghia Sophia’ Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Olaf Hiort Pediatric Chair and Deputy Coordinator of Endo-ERN, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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Alberto M Pereira Adult Chair and Coordinator of Endo-ERN, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Mehul Dattani London Centre for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes at Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital and University College London Hospitals, London, UK

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Diana Vitali SOD ITALIA (Italian Organization for Septo Optic Dysplasia and other Neuroendocrine Disorders), European Patient Advocacy Group, Rome, Italy

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Johan P de Graaf Dutch Pituitary Foundation, European Patient Advocacy Group, Nijkerk, The Netherlands

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Nienke R Biermasz Adult Chair Main Thematic Group 6 Pituitary of Endo-ERN, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Endocrine Tumors, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands

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. Pituitary adenomas comprise non-hormone-producing adenomas and adenomas producing an excess of growth hormone (acromegaly), adrenocorticotropic hormone (Cushing’s disease), prolactin (prolactinoma), thyrotropin hormone (TSH-producing adenoma), and

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Kunal Thakkar Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Swati Ramteke-Jadhav Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Rajeev Kasaliwal Department of Endocrinology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, India

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Saba Samad Memon Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Virendra Patil Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Puja Thadani Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Nilesh Lomte Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Shilpa Sankhe Department of Radiology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Atul Goel Department of Neurosurgery, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Sridhar Epari Department of Pathology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India

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Naina Goel Department of Neuropathology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Anurag Lila Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Nalini S Shah Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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Tushar Bandgar Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India

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hyperprolactinemia. Another patient (case 7) had headache, amenorrhoea, and clinical features of acromegaly. On hormonal evaluation, she had high IGF1 levels and mild hyperprolactinemia ( Table 1 ). In a recent extensive review including 69 patients with GCTs

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Alexandra Kiess Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Center Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Strümpellstraße, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, University Hospital Jena, Am Klinikum, Jena, Germany

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Jessica Green Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Eaton Road Liverpool, Great Britain

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Anja Willenberg Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics (ILM), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Uta Ceglarek Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics (ILM), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Ingo Dähnert Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Center Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Strümpellstraße, Leipzig, Germany

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Wieland Kiess LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Center for Pediatric Research (CPL), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Mandy Vogel LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Center for Pediatric Research (CPL), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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acromegaly have reported associations between growth hormone markers and cardiac markers together with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Andreassen et al. found concordant results to ours with IGF-1 levels that were inversely associated with NT

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