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Ishita Gupta, Allal Ouhtit, Adil Al-Ajmi, Syed Gauhar A Rizvi, Hamad Al-Riyami, Marwa Al-Riyami and Yahya Tamimi

proportion of young breast cancer in the Middle East when compared to Western countries. Usually, breast cancers in younger population tend to be more aggressive in nature and are associated with unfavorable prognosis when compared to women having the disease

Open access

Weixi Wang, Rulai Han, Lei Ye, Jing Xie, Bei Tao, Fukang Sun, Ran Zhuo, Xi Chen, Xiaxing Deng, Cong Ye, Hongyan Zhao and Shu Wang

, inheritance and prognosis of ACC associated with MEN1 remain unclear. The molecular pathogenesis of ACC has been associated with the tumor suppressor gene TP53 . An unusually high incidence of ACC has been found in children in southern Brazil and a founder

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Chan Sub Park, Jihye Choi, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Hyesil Seol, Woo Chul Noh and Hyun-Ah Kim

Introduction Estradiol is a key factor for tumorigenesis and prognosis of hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Although estradiol is produced mainly by the ovary in premenopausal women, the adrenal gland and adipocytes are also

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Norra Kwong, Ellen Marqusee, Michael S Gordon, P Reed Larsen, Jeffrey R Garber, Matthew I Kim and Erik K Alexander

their guarded prognosis. The 10-year survival rate for patients with distant metastatic thyroid cancer ranges from 26 to 60% (21, 22, 23) . As a result, more aggressive and repeated therapies are often employed. For instance, most patients with

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Changjiao Yan, Meiling Huang, Xin Li, Ting Wang and Rui Ling

other rare variants ( 2 ). Despite PTC is usually a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma with a favorable prognosis, its incidence has been sharply rising in many countries over the last decades ( 3 ) (the average incidence in the USA was 2.4% from 1980

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Tsuneo Ogawa and Adolfo J de Bold

and pulmonary hypertension (90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98) . Determination of these levels is useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of these cardiovascular pathologies. In addition to ANF 99–126 and BNP 77–108 , the biologically inactive N

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Ashley K Clift, Omar Faiz, Robert Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin M Modlin and Andrea Frilling

represent s.e.m. Data for all patients are included. The data marks in each plot from left to right represent high-, medium- and low-risk groups, respectively. Discussion NET patient prognosis prediction is limited by the paucity of

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Boju Pan, Anqi Wang, Junyi Pang, Yuhan Zhang, Ming Cui, Jian Sun and Zhiyong Liang

diagnosis and prognosis prediction but also an index for the immunotherapy response. Four types of PD-L1 antibodies and their corresponding evaluation criteria have been approved by the FDA for clinical PD-L1 evaluation: the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assay, PD

Open access

Eva Olga Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander and Magnus Hillman

patients with depression. Potentially, in the future, high galectin-3 levels could be used as indicators for depression, and treatment targeting galactin-3 might be developed to improve the prognosis for patients with high galectin-3 levels

Open access

K Amrein, A Papinutti, E Mathew, G Vila and D Parekh

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in intensive care units ranges typically between 40 and 70%. There are many reasons for being or becoming deficient in the ICU. Hepatic, parathyroid and renal dysfunction additionally increases the risk for developing vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, therapeutic interventions like fluid resuscitation, dialysis, surgery, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary bypass and plasma exchange may significantly reduce vitamin D levels. Many observational studies have consistently shown an association between low vitamin D levels and poor clinical outcomes in critically ill adults and children, including excess mortality and morbidity such as acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation and sepsis. It is biologically plausible that vitamin D deficiency is an important and modifiable contributor to poor prognosis during and after critical illness. Although vitamin D supplementation is inexpensive, simple and has an excellent safety profile, testing for and treating vitamin D deficiency is currently not routinely performed. Overall, less than 800 patients have been included in RCTs worldwide, but the available data suggest that high-dose vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial. Two large RCTs in Europe and the United States, together aiming to recruit >5000 patients, have started in 2017, and will greatly improve our knowledge in this field. This review aims to summarize current knowledge in this interdisciplinary topic and give an outlook on its highly dynamic future.