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María L Bacigalupo Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Verónica G Piazza Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Nadia S Cicconi Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Pablo Carabias Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Andrzej Bartke Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics Research, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA

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Yimin Fang Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics Research, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA

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Ana I Sotelo Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Gabriel A Rabinovich Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, and Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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María F Troncoso Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Johanna G Miquet Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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, alcohol abuse or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Regardless of the carcinogenic insult, it usually develops in patients with cirrhosis due to chronic inflammation and advanced fibrosis ( 2 ). Growth hormone (GH) is a major regulator of body growth and

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Mette Marie Baunsgaard Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Anne Sophie Lind Helligsoe Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Louise Tram Henriksen Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Torben Stamm Mikkelsen Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Michael Callesen Department of Paediatrics, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Funen, Denmark

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Britta Weber The Danish Center for Particle Therapy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Henrik Hasle Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Niels Birkebæk Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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physical chronic late effects ( 15 ) with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) being the most common endocrinopathy ( 16 ) followed by thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency ( 17 ). CR is the most significant risk factor for the development of GHD ( 18

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Alexander A L Jorge Unidade de Endocrinologia-Genetica, LIM/25, Disciplina de Endocrinologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Thomas Edouard Endocrine, Bone Diseases, and Genetics Unit, Children’s Hospital, Toulouse University Hospital, RESTORE INSERM UMR1301, Toulouse, France

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Mohamad Maghnie Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Genova, Italy

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Alberto Pietropoli Novo Nordisk Health Care AG, Global Medical Affairs Biopharm, Zürich, Switzerland

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Nicky Kelepouris Novo Nordisk Inc., Clinical, Medical and Regulatory Biopharm-RED, Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA

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Alicia Romano Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA

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Martin Zenker Institute of Human Genetics & Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

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Reiko Horikawa Department of Endocrine and Metabolism, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan

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addition, puberty is often delayed and is accompanied by a delay in bone age ( 1 , 9 , 11 ). It is estimated that over 50% of females and almost 40% of males with NS have an adult height below the third percentile ( 1 ). Abnormalities of growth hormone

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Imane Benabbad Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Eli Lilly, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

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Myriam Rosilio Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Eli Lilly, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

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Maité Tauber Department Endocrine, Bone Diseases, Genetics, Obesity, and Gynecology Unit, Children’s Hospital, University Hospital, Toulouse, France

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Emmanuel Paris BioClinica, Lyon, France

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Anne Paulsen Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Universitaire Robert-Debré, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Paris, France

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Lovisa Berggren Eli Lilly and Company, Bad Homburg, Germany

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Hiren Patel Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

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Jean-Claude Carel Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Universitaire Robert-Debré, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Paris, France
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Universitaire Robert-Debré, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Paris, France

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the Phoenix Study Group
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cause short stature have been excluded ( 1 ). Various studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment of children with ISS can increase their growth velocity and, to a lesser extent, adult height ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). The effect on height

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Alessandro Ciresi Section of Endocrinology, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Stefano Radellini Section of Endocrinology, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Valentina Guarnotta Section of Endocrinology, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Maria Grazia Mineo Section of Endocrinology, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Carla Giordano Section of Endocrinology, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

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Introduction The sexual dimorphism in the mechanisms involved in the regulation of somatotroph axis is well documented, and it might account for some of the sex differences in growth rate and body composition ( 1 ). Indeed, sex hormones are

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Anastasia Ibba SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Centro Screening Neonatale, Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico, ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Francesca Corrias SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Centro Screening Neonatale, Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico, ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Chiara Guzzetti SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Centro Screening Neonatale, Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico, ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Letizia Casula SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Centro Screening Neonatale, Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico, ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Mariacarolina Salerno Dipartimento di Pediatria, Università Federico II, Napoli, Italy

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Natascia di Iorgi Dipartimento di Pediatria, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Riabilitazione, Oftalmologia, Genetica e Scienze Materno-infantili, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy

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Gianluca Tornese SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica, Clinica Pediatrica, IRCCS Materno-infantile Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy

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Giuseppa Patti Dipartimento di Pediatria, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Riabilitazione, Oftalmologia, Genetica e Scienze Materno-infantili, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy

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Giorgio Radetti Dipartimento di Pediatria, Ospedale Generale Regionale, Bolzano, Italy

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Mohamad Maghnie Dipartimento di Pediatria, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Riabilitazione, Oftalmologia, Genetica e Scienze Materno-infantili, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy

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Marco Cappa UOC di Endocrinologia, Dipartimento Universitario Ospedaliero, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù IRCCS, Roma, Italy

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Sandro Loche SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Centro Screening Neonatale, Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico, ‘A. Cao’, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy

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Introduction The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood and adolescence is based on auxological, biochemical, neuro-radiological, and genetic investigations. Since GH production is pulsatile, its secretion needs to be

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Shenglong Le Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Leiting Xu Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Moritz Schumann Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
The Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, and Exercise Translational Medicine Center, Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Na Wu Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Timo Törmäkangas Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Markku Alén Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland

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Sulin Cheng Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
The Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, and Exercise Translational Medicine Center, Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Petri Wiklund Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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. High serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and low serum non-SHBG-bound testosterone in boys with idiopathic hypopituitarism: effect of recombinant human growth hormone treatment . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1987 65 1107

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Alicia Romano Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA

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Juan Pablo Kaski Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, Great Ormond Street Hospital & UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London, UK

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Jovanna Dahlgren Department of Paediatrics, Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Nicky Kelepouris US Medical Affairs, Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA

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Alberto Pietropoli Global Medical Affairs, Novo Nordisk Health Care AG, Zurich, Switzerland

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Tilman R Rohrer Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, University Children’s Hospital, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany

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Michel Polak Paediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Gynaecology Department, Hôpital Universitaire Necker Enfants-Malades, AP-HP, Université de Paris, Imagine Institute, Paris, France

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stenosis (PVS; prevalence 50–60%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM; 20%) and atrial septal defects (6–10%) ( 1 ). Growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with NS improves height velocity, height standard deviation score (SDS) and adult height, with a

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Thomas Reinehr Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Children’s Hospital, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Martin Carlsson Endocrine Care, Pfizer Inc, New York, New York, USA

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Dionisios Chrysis Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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Cecilia Camacho-Hübner Endocrine Care, Pfizer Inc, New York, New York, USA

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height is lower than predicted height. The difference between predicted and achieved adult height depends on bone age retardation in CDGP ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). Since bone age is delayed in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) before the initiation

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Ping Li Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Fei Cheng Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Lei Xiu Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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common feature of TS, untreated women are approximately 20–21 cm shorter than normal women within their respective populations ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been shown to increase growth and final height in

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