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Filippo Ceccato Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy
Department of Neuroscience DNS, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Diego Cecchin Department of Neuroscience DNS, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy
Padova Neuroscience Center PNC, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Michele Gregianin Nuclear Medicine Unit, Castelfranco Veneto, Italy

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Giacomo Ricci Department of Neuroscience DNS, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Cristina Campi Padova Neuroscience Center PNC, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Department of Mathematics ‘Tullio Levi-Civita’ DM, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Filippo Crimì Radiology Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Marta Bergamo Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Annibale Versari Nuclear Medicine Unit, Reggio Emilia, Italy

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Carmelo Lacognata Radiology Department, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Federico Rea Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Mattia Barbot Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Carla Scaroni Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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despite a meticulous and extended follow-up ( 4 , 7 ). The most common tumours in EAS are thoracic (lung or mediastinal carcinoids, small cell-lung carcinoma SCLC, thymic tumours and medullary thyroid carcinomas) or abdominal neoplasms (islet cell tumours

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Katherine Van Loon
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Li Zhang
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Jennifer Keiser
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Cendy Carrasco
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Katherine Glass The UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, University of California, San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, UCSF Box 1770, San Francisco, California 94143, USA

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Maria-Teresa Ramirez The UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, University of California, San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, UCSF Box 1770, San Francisco, California 94143, USA

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Sarah Bobiak The UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, University of California, San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, UCSF Box 1770, San Francisco, California 94143, USA

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Eric K Nakakura
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Alan P Venook
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Manisha H Shah The UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, University of California, San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, UCSF Box 1770, San Francisco, California 94143, USA

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Emily K Bergsland
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(2) . Historically, bone metastases from NETs were considered to be extremely rare (3, 4) . As few as 50 case reports were identified in a recently published literature review on skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors (5) . In a series of 145

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Paweł Komarnicki Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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Paweł Gut Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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Jan Musiałkiewicz Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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Maja Cieślewicz Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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Adam Maciejewski Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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Prachi Patel Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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George Mastorakos Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolism, Aretaieion University Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Marek Ruchała Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

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). Carcinoid syndrome (CS) is characterized by increased secretion of serotonin, and other biogenic amines and peptides. It manifests as a set of symptoms including diarrhea, skin flushing, and abdominal pain ( 15 ). Patients with liver metastases frequently

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Carole Morin Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Oncologie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Keo-Morakort Benedetto Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Oncologie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Agathe Deville Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Louis Pradel, Médecine Nucléaire, Bron, France
Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, UMR Inserm 1052 CNRS 5286, Lyon Cedex 08, France

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Laurent Milot Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Radiologie, Lyon Cedex 03, France
University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France

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Aurélie Theillaumas Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Oncologie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Valérie Hervieu Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, UMR Inserm 1052 CNRS 5286, Lyon Cedex 08, France
University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Institut de Pathologie Est, Bron Cedex, France

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Mathieu Pioche University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Gastroentérologie, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Gilles Poncet Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, UMR Inserm 1052 CNRS 5286, Lyon Cedex 08, France
University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Chirurgie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Julien Forestier Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Oncologie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Laurent François Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Louis Pradel, Exploration Fonctionnelle, Bron Cedex, France

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Francoise Borson-Chazot University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Louis Pradel, Endocrinologie, Bron Cedex, France

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Mustapha Adham University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Chirurgie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Catherine Lombard-Bohas Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Oncologie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France

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Thomas Walter Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Oncologie Digestive, Lyon Cedex 03, France
Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, UMR Inserm 1052 CNRS 5286, Lyon Cedex 08, France
University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France

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cerebral imaging), functional imaging (somatostatin receptor imaging-SRI, FDG-PET, and FDOPA-PET) and expert pathological reviews. We paid specific attention to the work-up performed for carcinoid syndrome: 5HIAA was defined as necessary for all suspected

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Sara Lomelino Pinheiro Serviço de Endocrinologia, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

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Ana Saramago Unidade de Investigação em Patobiologia Molecular, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

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Branca Maria Cavaco Unidade de Investigação em Patobiologia Molecular, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

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Carmo Martins Unidade de Investigação em Patobiologia Molecular, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

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Valeriano Leite Serviço de Endocrinologia e Unidade de Investigação em Patobiologia Molecular, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

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Tiago Nunes da Silva Serviço de Endocrinologia e Unidade de Investigação em Patobiologia Molecular, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal

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neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Less frequently, it is associated with adrenocortical and carcinoid tumors, lipomas and meningiomas ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). MEN1 is inherited as an autosomal-dominant syndrome and is caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 gene, which

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Roxanne C S van Adrichem Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Centre of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Aart Jan van der Lely Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Martin Huisman Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Piet Kramer Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Richard A Feelders Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Centre of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Patric J D Delhanty Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Wouter W de Herder Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Centre of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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) and clinical parameters (age at diagnosis, sex, primary tumor location, carcinoid syndrome, ENETS TNM classification ( 32 , 33 ), Ki-67 proliferation index, grading, prior incomplete surgery) in NET patients. Subjects and methods NET

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Matilde Calanchini Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Endocrinology & Metabolism Unit, CTO A. Alesini Hospital ASL Roma 2, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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Michael Tadman Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Jesper Krogh Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Andrea Fabbri Endocrinology & Metabolism Unit, CTO A. Alesini Hospital ASL Roma 2, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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Ashley Grossman Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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Brian Shine Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

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until they are large or have metastasised. However, up to 40% of patients, mainly with midgut carcinoids, present with features of the carcinoid syndrome (CS) ( 6 ), and undergo episodes of diarrhoea and flushing and occasionally asthma. Carcinoid heart

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Dong Cen Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

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Hui Liu Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

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Zhe Wan Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

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Zhongjie Lin Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

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Yanting Wang Department of Internal Medicine, John H Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, USA

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Junjie Xu Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

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Yuelong Liang Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
Department of General Surgery, Sir Run-Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China

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, also designated as carcinoid tumors in some systems, and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma ( 5 ). NEN in the gallbladder is a relatively rare histological tumor type, accounting for 0.5% of all NEN cases ( 6 ). The most common histological

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Ashley K Clift Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Oskar Kornasiewicz Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK
Department of Surgery, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland

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Panagiotis Drymousis Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Omar Faiz Department of Surgery, St Mark’s Hospital, London, UK

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Harpreet S Wasan Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK

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James M Kinross Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Thomas Cecil Peritoneal Malignancy Unit, Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital, Basingstoke, UK

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Andrea Frilling Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Introduction Initially termed ‘goblet cell carcinoids’ ( 1 ), goblet cell carcinomas (GCC) are a rare sub-type of neoplasm arising from the appendix, accounting for less than 14% of all appendiceal tumours ( 2 ). Whilst an ‘intermediate

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Majunath R Goroshi Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Swati S Jadhav Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Anurag R Lila Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Rajeev Kasaliwal Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Shruti Khare Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Chaitanya G Yerawar Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Priya Hira Department of Radiology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Uday Phadke Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune, Maharashtra, India

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Hina Shah Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Vikram R Lele Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Gaurav Malhotra Radiation Medicine Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tata Memorial Centre, Annexe, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Tushar Bandgar Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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Nalini S Shah Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

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small-cell carcinoma of lung), majority of cases of EAS are now reported to be caused by neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) that include carcinoid tumours of bronchopulmonary system, thymus, and gastrointestinal tract; pancreatic NETs; medullary thyroid

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