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Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland

(2) . Historically, bone metastases from NETs were considered to be extremely rare (3, 4) . As few as 50 case reports were identified in a recently published literature review on skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors (5) . In a series of 145

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Stephen A Martin, Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Dawn A Olson, Adam J Branscum, Donald B Jump, Charles K Marik, Jonathan M DenHerder, Jennifer L Sargent, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

Introduction Mice are among the most commonly utilized animal models for aging-related metabolic bone disease in humans. Advantages of mice over many models include their small size, relatively short lifespan, and ease of genetic manipulation

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Keina Nishio, Akiko Tanabe, Risa Maruoka, Kiyoko Nakamura, Masaaki Takai, Tatsuharu Sekijima, Satoshi Tunetoh, Yoshito Terai and Masahide Ohmichi

chemotherapies are important because these patients have an additional expected life span. Numerous older studies have shown that bone loss either starts or increases at the time of the menopause (1, 2, 3) . The earlier in life that menopause occurs, the lower

Open access

K Amrein, A Papinutti, E Mathew, G Vila and D Parekh

A short history of vitamin D in critical care Only 10 years ago, a potential link between acute illness and vitamin D, which is well known for its role in calcium and bone homeostasis, was regarded as quite absurd – how could this hormone be

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Thomas Reinehr, Martin Carlsson, Dionisios Chrysis and Cecilia Camacho-Hübner

Introduction Prediction of adult height is a frequently requested procedure in pediatric endocrinology. The commonly used methods for adult height prediction are bone age determination of the wrist and fingers of the left hand by Greulich

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Karoline Winckler, Lise Tarnow, Louise Lundby-Christensen, Thomas P Almdal, Niels Wiinberg, Pia Eiken, Trine W Boesgaard and the CIMT trial group

to improved endothelial function, inhibition of foam cell formation and suppression of macrophage cholesterol uptake in patients with T2D (19, 20) . Vitamin D's effect on bone health (fractures and bone mineral density (BMD)) is well established in

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Renata C Scalco, Ericka B Trarbach, Edoarda V A Albuquerque, Thais K Homma, Thais H Inoue-Lima, Mirian Y Nishi, Berenice B Mendonca and Alexander A L Jorge

peak bone mass and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics ( 1 ). However, individual outcomes of estrogen treatment are highly variable among these patients. For instance, uterine development descriptions range from lower than average

Open access

Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Julia Schulz, Manfred Ventz, Kathrin Zopf and Marcus Quinkler

-induced decline in bone formation is associated with an increased fracture risk related both to the dose and duration of GC treatment ( 2 ). Recent studies on bone mineral density (BMD) in PAI and CAH patients showed different results. This may be not only due to

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Elena Valassi, Natalia García-Giralt, Jorge Malouf, Iris Crespo, Jaume Llauger, Adolfo Díez-Pérez and Susan M Webb

Introduction Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1) are anabolic hormones which influence bone metabolism through the modulation of several signaling pathways ( 1 ). In vitro studies showed that GH enhances the

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Miranda Scharff, Chantal Maria Wiepjes, Maartje Klaver, Thomas Schreiner, Guy T’Sjoen and Martin den Heijer

). Earlier studies on effects of HT in trans people focused on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. These studies found an increase in lean body mass in transmen and a decrease in lean body mass in transwomen ( 4 , 5 ). BMD increased in both