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Tingting Xia, Hongru Sun, Hao Huang, Haoran Bi, Rui Pu, Lei Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Ying Liu, Jing Xu, Justina Ucheojor Onwuka, Yupeng Liu, Binbin Cui and Yashuang Zhao

that this alteration might directly be a biomarker of the risk and prognosis of cancer ( 16 , 17 , 18 ). Recently, studies have focused on the role of AR in prostate ( 19 ), breast ( 20 ), hepatocellular, pancreatic and bladder cancers ( 21

Open access

Zhen-yu Song, Qiuming Yao, Zhiyuan Zhuo, Zhe Ma and Gang Chen

the association of vitamin D with the survival rate of prostate cancer. For example, in newly diagnosed stage IV prostate cancer patients, no significant association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with the prognosis of them was found ( 10 ). In contrast, other

Open access

Eugenie S Lim, Shanty G Shah, Mona Waterhouse, Scott Akker, William Drake, Nick Plowman, Daniel M Berney, Polly Richards, Ashok Adams, Ewa Nowosinska, Carmel Brennan and Maralyn Druce

from thyroid follicular cells. The majority are classified as PTC with a minority of FTC. PTC is the most common thyroid cancer and it carries a good prognosis with a 10-year disease-free survival rate of 93%. Consistent with other studies, our study

Open access

Huy Gia Vuong, Uyen N P Duong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Hanh T T Ngo, Thong Quang Pham, Hung Minh Tran, Greta Gandolfi and Lewis Hassell

.3 (Cochrane Collaborative, Oxford, UK) was used for statistical analysis. Pooled HR for DSS and DFS was calculated using the random-model effect weighted by inverse variance method. An HR >1 indicated a compromised prognosis in PTC patients with mutations. If

Open access

Zi-Di Xu, Wei Zhang, Min Liu, Huan-Min Wang, Pei-Pei Hui, Xue-Jun Liang, Jie Yan, Yu-Jun Wu, Yan-Mei Sang, Cheng Zhu and Gui-Chen Ni

and a series of neurological sequelae. Therefore, early diagnosis and effective treatment are essential to improve the prognosis of diseased children. The clinical manifestations, histological types, diagnoses, treatment effects and long-term prognoses

Open access

June Young Choi, Jin Wook Yi, Jun Hyup Lee, Ra-Yeong Song, Hyeongwon Yu, Hyungju Kwon, Young Jun Chai, Su-jin Kim and Kyu Eun Lee

). Although this type of cancer has an excellent prognosis, the prognosis significantly worsens when the tumor grows and metastasizes ( 2 ). For this reason, it is important to understand the characteristics of the tumor at the early stage. Several

Open access

Erika Urbano Lima, Ileana G S Rubio, Joaquim Custodio Da Silva, Ana Luiza Galrão, Danielle Pêssoa, Taise Cerqueira Oliveira, Fabiane Carrijo, Igor Silva Campos, Luciano Fonseca Espinheira, Luiz Jose Sampaio, Claudio Rogerio Lima, Janete Maria Cerutti and Helton Estrela Ramos

.2) promoter harbors CpG islands including the first exon and intron ( 13 ). Its epigenetic control has been correlated with tumorigenesis and worse prognosis in uterine, breast, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers ( 10 , 11 , 12 , 13

Open access

Anello Marcello Poma, Riccardo Giannini, Paolo Piaggi, Clara Ugolini, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli, Paolo Vitti and Fulvio Basolo

lobectomy may be a sufficient treatment for low-risk FTC (i.e. MI-FTC with less than 4 vascular invasion foci) ( 12 ). However, molecular markers such as TERT promoter mutations were found to be an independent poor prognosis factor in differentiated

Open access

Chao-bin He, Yu Zhang, Zhi-yuan Cai and Xiao-jun Lin

diagnosis compared with predicting survival. As for patients with metastatic PNETs, maybe more factors apart from the variables of TNM stage system, such as age, tumor grade and treatment, should be considered when evaluating prognosis of these patients. In

Open access

Agnieszka Kosowska, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Wojciech Garczorz, Agnieszka Kłych-Ratuszny, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam, Michał Woz´niak, Andrzej Witek, Agnieszka Wróblewska-Czech, Anna Cygal, Jerzy Wojnar and Tomasz Francuz

suggesting a cause–effect interaction between cancer and type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( 1 , 2 ). Furthermore, the coexistence of both diseases is associated with worse prognosis and higher mortality ( 3 ). In the clinical setting, several groups of drugs are used