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Rachel Forfar Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Mashal Hussain Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Puneet Khurana Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Jennifer Cook Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Steve Lewis Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Dillon Popat Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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David Jackson Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Ed McIver Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Jeff Jerman Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Debra Taylor Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage, UK

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Adrian JL Clark Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Li F Chan Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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1-24 was purchased from Cambridge Research Biochemicals (Cleveland, UK). Homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) cAMP dynamic 2 assay kits were from Cisbio (Codolet, France). Progesterone ELISA kit was purchased from Cayman Chemical. GeneBLAzer

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Sonja Kunz Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Xiao Wang Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Uta Ferrari Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Michael Drey Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Marily Theodoropoulou Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Katharina Schilbach Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Martin Reincke Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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Margit Heier Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
KORA Study Centre, University Hospital of Augsburg, Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany

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Annette Peters Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany

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Wolfgang Koenig German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
German Heart Centre Munich, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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Tanja Zeller Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany

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Barbara Thorand Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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Martin Bidlingmaier Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

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transitions. According to the manufacturer, all calibrators and QCs are traceable to certified reference materials, or, if not available for certain steroid, to primary standards. For cortisol, progesterone and testosterone NIST 971 reference material is used

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T P Parikh Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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B Stolze Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Y Ozarda Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey

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J Jonklaas Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

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K Welsh Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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L Masika Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology/National Health Laboratory Service Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa

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M Hill Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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A DeCherney Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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S J Soldin Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

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or downstream hormones within the steroid synthesis pathway ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). A recent preliminary study comparing 8 AM and midnight samples on a small cohort of controls, suggests that significant diurnal variation in all but progesterone probably

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María J Gómora Departamento de Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Flavia Morales-Vásquez Departamento de Oncología Médica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Enrique Pedernera Departamento de Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Delia Perez-Montiel Departamento de Patología, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Horacio López-Basave Departamento de Cirugía Oncológica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Antonio R Villa División de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Azucena Hernández-Martínez Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatología, Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional, CdMx, Mexico

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Esteban Mena Unidad de Apoyo Académico, Secretaría General, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Carmen Mendez Departamento de Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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migration and invasiveness, which are essential in tumor progression ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). The presence of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) plays an important role in the progression and treatment of

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Jana Ernst Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Katharina Gert Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Frank Bernhard Kraus Central Laboratory, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Ernst-Grube-Strasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Ulrike Elisabeth Rolle-Kampczyk Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

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Martin Wabitsch Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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Faramarz Dehghani Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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Kristina Schaedlich Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale), Germany

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-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase 5; HSD3B , 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; PGR , progesterone receptor; TBP, TATA-box-binding protein. Hormone assays Cell supernatants were collected and concentrations of the adipokines leptin (high

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Yao Ye Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Aurelia Vattai Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Nina Ditsch Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Christina Kuhn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Martina Rahmeh Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Sven Mahner Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Myriam Ripphahn Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany

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Roland Immler Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany

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Markus Sperandio Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany

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Udo Jeschke Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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Viktoria von Schönfeldt Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

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(FCS, Gibco). Cells were seeded into 24-well plates for the determination of beta-hCG, progesterone and PAI-1 and 6-well plates for Western blotting. After 6–8 h, cell culture medium was replaced with fresh RPMI1640 with stimulation chemicals for the

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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Irene Lambrinoudaki 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece

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John C Stevenson National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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Dimitrios G Goulis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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attenuate this effect, whereas low-dose norethisterone acetate and dydrogesterone are neutral ( 7 ). In general, micronized progesterone or dydrogesterone are the preferred progestogens due to their neutral effect on lipid profile ( 39 ). MHT and CVD

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Paal Methlie Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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Steinar Hustad Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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Ralf Kellman Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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Bjørg Almås Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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Martina M Erichsen Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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Eystein S Husebye Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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Kristian Løvås Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
Department of Clinical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway

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, 11-deoxycortisol (11DOC), testosterone, androstenedione, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and progesterone were obtained from Steraloids, Inc. (Newport, RI, USA), and DXM was obtained from Alfa Aesar (Ward Hill, MA, USA). The deuterated internal

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Anette Lundqvist Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Herbert Sandström Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Torbjörn Bäckström Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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energy requirements in well-nourished pregnant women are about an extra 321 MJ (1 megajoule = 239 kilocalorie = 1000 kilojoules), distributed over pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition and energy supply for both mother and fetus ( 7 ). Progesterone

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Henrik Ryberg Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anna-Karin Norlén Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Andreas Landin Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Per Johansson Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Zeinab Salman Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anders Wallin Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden

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Johan Svensson Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Skaraborg Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden

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Claes Ohlsson Sahlgrenska Osteoporosis Centre, Center for Bone and Arthritis Research (CBAR), Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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progesterone (P) ( 1 ). Circulating sex steroid levels may contribute to the levels seen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but the relative contributions of local production vs peripheral sources to sex steroid levels in the CNS are not well understood ( 2

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