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Line K Johnson, Kirsten B Holven, Njord Nordstrand, Jan R Mellembakken, Tom Tanbo and Jøran Hjelmesæth

Introduction Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight and have a central fat distribution (1) . It is well known that abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and increased risk of

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Xiaomin Nie, Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Yun Shen, Yufei Wang and Yuqian Bao

resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the following formula: HOMA-IR = FINS (mU/L) × FPG (mmol/L)/22.5 ( 16 ). A Cobas e601 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics GmbH) was used to measure FT3, free thyroxine

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Tingting Shu, Zhigang Lv, Yuchun Xie, Junming Tang and Xuhua Mao

those in healthy individuals ( 7 , 9 , 10 ). However, the mechanism by which hepcidin mediates T2DM pathogenesis remains unclear. Recent reports attribute the probable mechanism to the induction of peripheral tissue insulin resistance ( 11 ) through

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Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier and Uwe Schwahn

browning and reduces obesity and insulin resistance . Nature Medicine 2015 21 159 – 165 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3760 ) 25559344 10.1038/nm.3760 61 Kharitonenkov A Shiyanova TL Koester A Ford AM Micanovic R Galbreath EJ Sandusky GE Hammond LJ

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Kristin Godang, Karolina Lundstam, Charlotte Mollerup, Stine Lyngvi Fougner, Ylva Pernow, Jörgen Nordenström, Thord Rosén, Svante Jansson, Mikael Hellström, Jens Bollerslev, Ansgar Heck and the SIPH Study Group

, 15 ). It has been suggested that PTH may lead to weight gain by inhibition of lipolysis ( 16 ) and thereby promote insulin resistance ( 15 ). Thereby, PHPT is related to manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, and potential effects on body

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Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse and Paul-Martin Holterhus

underlying mechanisms of PCOS are not fully understood yet though obesity and insulin resistance are regarded as major risk factors for hyperandrogenism in PCOS due to abnormal sex steroid production in ovaries and adrenals ( 2 ). Especially, the differential

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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

, however, high levels of glucose suppress osteoblast differentiation ( 58 ). Also, carboxylated osteocalcin serum concentrations are reduced and inversely associated with fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance (reviewed in 59 ). In line, a reduced

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Bruna Barcelo Barbosa, José Maria Soares Junior and Edmund Chada Baracat

120 min after the ingestion of dextrose. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined by fasting insulin levels of >12.2 μU/mL (84.7 pmol/L) ( 34 ) and/or a HOMA-IR value of ≥2.7 ( 35 ). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126

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Elisabet Einarsdottir, Minna Pekkinen, Kaarel Krjutškov, Shintaro Katayama, Juha Kere, Outi Mäkitie and Heli Viljakainen

activity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 23 , 24 , 25 ). In fact, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to precede the development of insulin resistance ( 26 , 27 ). In a recent metabolomics study

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Charlotte Janus, Dorte Vistisen, Hanan Amadid, Daniel R Witte, Torsten Lauritzen, Søren Brage, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Marit E Jørgensen, Oluf Pedersen, Kristine Færch and Signe S Torekov

insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes . Nature 2006 840 – 846 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05482 ) 32 Smith AD Crippa A Woodcock J Brage S . Physical activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose