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Christin Krause, Martina Grohs, Alexander T El Gammal, Stefan Wolter, Hendrik Lehnert, Oliver Mann, Jens Mittag and Henriette Kirchner

, ranging from steatosis with normal hepatic function to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and further to cirrhotic NASH and even hepatocellular carcinoma (for review see ( 1 )). Several endocrine pathways are known to contribute to the development and

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Agnieszka Adamska, Aleksandra Maria Polak, Anna Krentowska, Agnieszka Łebkowska, Justyna Hryniewicka, Monika Leśniewska and Irina Kowalska

dysfunction and characteristic image of the ovaries in the ultrasound ( 2 ). A lot of data indicated that insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of metabolic disturbances in PCOS, for example, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular

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Elizaveta Mamedova, Natalya Mokrysheva, Evgeny Vasilyev, Vasily Petrov, Ekaterina Pigarova, Sergey Kuznetsov, Nikolay Kuznetsov, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Galina Melnichenko, Ivan Dedov and Anatoly Tiulpakov

( 5 ). PHPT development at an early age is suspicious for hereditary causes, but whether routine mutational analysis among young patients with PHPT, for example for MEN1 mutations, is needed and under what age it is advisable remains controversial

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L M Mongioì, R A Condorelli, S La Vignera and A E Calogero

3912 – 3922 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-0685 ) 10.1210/jc.2007-0685 14 Løvås K Curran S Oksnes M Husebye ES Huppert FA Chatterjee VK. Development of a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire in Addison’s disease . Journal of Clinical

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H A Booij, W D C Gaykema, K A J Kuijpers, M J M Pouwels and H M den Hertog

stalk at the time of injury ( 4 ). This, and other secondary mechanisms after TBI, such as hypotension, hypoxia and raised intracranial pressure might be responsible for the development of PD ( 5 ). The same concept might be applied in part to brain

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A Daniel Bird, Spencer Greatorex, David Reser, Gareth G Lavery and Timothy J Cole

all stages of ovarian follicle development ( Fig. 5A and D ). Also shown are negative controls with no primary antibody (panel B) and an immunizing peptide, pre-incubation control (panel C). The mouse ovary, that should not express a HSD1L protein

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Sandrine Visentin, Gérard Michel, Claire Oudin, Béatrice Cousin, Bénédicte Gaborit, Inès Abdesselam, Marie Maraninchi, Marion Nowicki, René Valéro, Maxime Guye, Monique Bernard, Pascal Auquier, Hervé Chambost, Marie-Christine Alessi and Sophie Béliard

). Given the high prevalence of MS, and despite a lower body weight among survivors who received TBI, we hypothesized that exposure to radiation leads to abnormal fat storage with ectopic fat deposition development deposition and insulin resistance

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Yun Hu, Na Li, Peng Jiang, Liang Cheng, Bo Ding, Xiao-Mei Liu, Ke He, Yun-Qing Zhu, Bing-li Liu, Xin Cao, Hong Zhou and Xiao-Ming Mao

.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0934 ) 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0934 33 Fontenot JD Gavin MA Rudensky AY . Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells . Nature Immunology 2003 4 330 – 336 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/ni904 ) 12612578 10

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Yali Cheng, Qiaoying Lv, Bingying Xie, Bingyi Yang, Weiwei Shan, Chengcheng Ning, Bing Li, Liying Xie, Chao Gu, Xuezhen Luo, Xiaojun Chen and Qin Zhu

Unopposed estrogen stimulation and insulin resistance are known to play important roles in endometrial cancer (EC), but the interaction between these two factors and how they contribute to endometrial lesions are not completely elucidated. To investigate the endometrial transcriptome profile and the associated molecular pathway alterations, we established an ovariectomized C57BL/6 mouse model treated with subcutaneous implantation of 17-β estradiol (E2) pellet and/or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to mimic sustained estrogen stimulation and insulin resistance. Histomorphologically, we found that both E2 and E2 + HFD groups showed markedly enlarged uterus and increased number of endometrial glands. The endometrium samples were collected for microarray assay. GO and KEGG analysis showed that genes regulated by E2 and/or HFD are mainly responsible for immune response, inflammatory response and metabolic pathways. Further IPA analysis demonstrated that the acute phase response signaling, NF-κB signaling, leukocyte extravasation signaling, PPAR signaling and LXR/RXR activation pathways are mainly involved in the pathways above. In addition, the genes modulated reciprocally by E2 and/or HFD were also analyzed, and their crosstalk mainly focuses on enhancing one another’s activity. The combination analysis of microarray data and TCGA database provided potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets for EC. Further validation was performed in mice endometrium and human EC cell lines. In conclusion, this study unraveled the endometrial transcriptome profile alterations affected by E2 and/or HFD that may disturb endometrial homeostasis and contribute to the development of endometrial hyperplasia.

Open access

Dirk Weismann, Andreas Schneider and Charlotte Höybye

Hyponatremia (HN) is a common condition, with a large number of etiologies and a complicated treatment. Although chronic HN has been shown to be a predictor of poor outcome, sodium-increasing treatments in chronic stable and asymptomatic HN have not proven to increase life expectancy. For symptomatic HN, in contrast, the necessity for urgent treatment has broadly been accepted to avoid the development of fatal cerebral edema. On the other hand, a too rapid increase of serum sodium in chronic HN may result in cerebral damage due to osmotic demyelinisation. Recently, administration of hypertonic saline bolus has been recommended as first-line treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe symptomatic HN. This approach is easy to memorize and holds the potential to greatly facilitate the initial treatment of symptomatic HN. First-line treatment of chronic HN is fluid restriction and if ineffective treatment with tolvaptan or in some patients other agents should be considered. A number of recommendations and guidelines have been published on HN. In the present review, the management of patients with HN in relation to everyday clinical practice is summarized with focus on the acute management.